John Wyne

John Wyne Zehn Western mit John Wayne

John Wayne, Spitzname Duke, war ein US-amerikanischer Filmschauspieler, Filmproduzent und Regisseur. Er zählte zu den einflussreichsten, erfolgreichsten und bestbezahlten Hollywood-Schauspielern seiner Zeit. John Wayne (* Mai in Winterset, Iowa; † Juni in Los Angeles; geboren als Marion Robert Morrison, später umbenannt in Marion Mitchell. Die US-Amerikaner streiten über ihren größten Cowboy-Darsteller: John Wayne redete abschätzig über Schwarze und Native Americans. John Wayne ist der Inbegriff des Westerns. Der Schauspieler, der den Colt in den Wohnzimmern etablierte, wäre am Mai Jahre alt geworden. Wir haben. “ John Waynes Biographie auf DVD Nur sechs Jahre lebte Marion Michael mit seinen Eltern in Winterset. Daher sind seine Erinnerungen aus.

John Wyne

john wayne kinder. John Wayne wurde als Marion Robert Morrison am Mai als Sohn von Clyde Leonard Morrison ( – ) und dessen Ehefrau Mary Alberta (​. John Wayne, Spitzname Duke, war ein US-amerikanischer Filmschauspieler, Filmproduzent und Regisseur. Er zählte zu den einflussreichsten, erfolgreichsten und bestbezahlten Hollywood-Schauspielern seiner Zeit.

John Wyne Video

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Although greeted with lukewarm reviews upon its release, Rio Bravo is now regarded as a classic western. After a screen career of more than 40 years, Wayne was honoured with an Academy Award for his portrayal of the drunken, cantankerous , but endearing U.

This role was a poignant screen farewell for an actor who himself would succumb to cancer three years later. Wayne endured criticism throughout his career from those who questioned his versatility as an actor.

His ability to convey quiet tenderness, however, and his capacity for multilayered portrayals of complex characters, as in Red River and The Searchers , was often overlooked.

Wayne himself was also the subject of controversy: his outspoken right-wing politics were admired by conservatives but derided by liberals as being naively jingoistic.

His politics notwithstanding, he is considered a towering cinematic icon and, to some, the greatest Hollywood star of all time.

John Wayne. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree In , Gacy was appointed director of Chicago's annual Polish Constitution Day Parade —he supervised the annual event from until She signed one photo: "To John Gacy.

Best wishes. Rosalynn Carter. In the pictures, Gacy is wearing an "S" pin, indicating a person who has been given special clearance by the Secret Service.

Through his membership in a local Moose Club , Gacy became aware of a "Jolly Joker" clown club, whose members regularly performed at fundraising events and parades in addition to entertaining hospitalized children voluntarily.

Gacy designed his own clown costumes and taught himself how to apply clown makeup. For these reasons, Gacy is known as the "Killer Clown".

Occasionally, Gacy would remain in his clown garb after a performance. He arrived a few times at a favorite drinking venue, "The Good Luck Lounge", dressed in his clown garb, explaining he had performed at a charitable event and was stopping for a social drink before heading home.

By , Gacy had told his wife that he was bisexual. Following a heated argument when she failed to balance a checkbook correctly in October , [] Carole Gacy asked her husband for a divorce.

Gacy agreed to his wife's request although, by mutual consent, Carole continued to live at West Summerdale until February , when she and her daughters moved into their own apartment.

Gacy is known to have murdered at least 33 young men and boys, 26 of whom were buried in the crawl space. He typically abducted his victims from Chicago's Greyhound Bus station, Bughouse Square , or simply off the streets.

Some victims were grabbed by force, or conned into believing Gacy who often carried a sheriff's badge and had spotlights on his black Oldsmobile [] was a policeman.

Other victims were lured to his house with either the promise of a job with PDM, or an offer of drink, drugs, or money for sex.

Inside Gacy's home, his usual modus operandi was to ply a youth with drink, drugs, or generally gain his trust. Gacy would then produce a pair of handcuffs to show a magic trick, sometimes as part of a clowning routine.

He typically cuffed his own hands behind his back, then surreptitiously released himself with the key, which he hid between his fingers. He then offered to show his intended victim how to release himself from the handcuffs.

Having restrained his victim, Gacy proceeded to rape and torture his captive. He frequently began by sitting on the chest before forcing his victim to fellate him.

Gacy typically murdered his victims by placing a rope tourniquet around their neck before progressively tightening the rope with a hammer handle.

After death, the victims' bodies were typically stored beneath his bed for up to 24 hours. Gacy then buried his victim in the crawl space, where he periodically poured quicklime to hasten the decomposition of the bodies.

Gacy's first known murder occurred on January 2, According to Gacy's later account, following a family party, he decided to drive to the Civic Center in the Loop to view a display of ice sculptures before luring a year-old named Timothy Jack McCoy from Chicago's Greyhound bus terminal into his car.

McCoy was traveling from Michigan to Omaha. Gacy took McCoy on a sightseeing tour of Chicago, and then drove him to his home with the promise that he could spend the night and be driven back to the station in time to catch his bus.

Gacy claimed he woke early the following morning to find McCoy standing in his bedroom doorway with a kitchen knife in his hand.

McCoy then kicked Gacy in the stomach, doubling him over. Gacy then grabbed McCoy, wrestled him to the floor, and stabbed him repeatedly in the chest as he straddled him.

As McCoy lay dying, Gacy claimed he washed the knife in his bathroom, then went to his kitchen and saw an opened carton of eggs and a slab of unsliced bacon on his kitchen table.

McCoy had also set the table for two; he had walked into Gacy's room to wake him while absentmindedly carrying the kitchen knife in his hand. Gacy later stated the second time he committed murder was around January Gacy strangled this victim before stowing his body in his closet prior to burial.

As a result, Gacy regularly stuffed cloth rags, or the underwear of subsequent victims, in their mouths to prevent this leakage from recurring.

One week after the attempted assault of Antonucci, on July 31, , another of Gacy's employees, an year-old from Lombard , John Butkovich, disappeared.

The day before his disappearance, Butkovich had confronted Gacy over two weeks' outstanding back pay. Butkovich's father, a Yugoslav immigrant, called Gacy, who claimed he was happy to help search for his son but was sorry Butkovich had "run away".

Over the following three years, Butkovich's parents called police more than times, urging them to investigate Gacy further. Gacy later admitted to encountering Butkovich exiting his car at the corner of West Lawrence Avenue, and waving to attract his attention.

He invited Butkovich back to his home, ostensibly to settle the issue of his overdue wages. His wife and stepchildren were visiting his younger sister in Arkansas.

Gacy offered Butkovich a drink, then conned him into allowing his wrists to be cuffed behind his back. Gacy said he "sat on the kid's chest for a while" before he strangled him.

He initially stowed Butkovich's body in his garage, intending to later bury the body in the crawl space.

In addition to being the year of his business expanding, Gacy freely admitted was also when he began to increase the frequency of his excursions for sex with young males.

He later referred to these as his "cruising years". Although Gacy remained gregarious and civic-minded, several neighbors noticed erratic changes in his behavior after his divorce.

This included keeping company with young males, hearing his car arrive or depart in the early hours of the morning, or seeing lights in his home switch on and off in the early hours.

One month after his divorce was finalized, Gacy abducted and murdered year-old Darrell Samson. Samson was last seen alive in Chicago on April 6, Reffett died of asphyxiation; his body was buried in the crawl space.

Hours after Reffett had been abducted, year-old Samuel Stapleton vanished as he walked to his home from his sister's apartment.

He disappeared while traveling from Chicago to Waukegan , and was strangled with a ligature and buried beneath Gacy's spare bedroom.

Carroll seems to have been the first of four males known to have been murdered between June 13 and August 6, On August 5, a year-old Minnesota youth named James Haakenson is last known to have phoned his family.

Two further unidentified males are estimated to have been killed by Gacy between August and October On October 24, Gacy abducted and killed teenage friends Kenneth Parker and Michael Marino: the two were last seen outside a restaurant on Clark Street.

His body was buried beneath Gacy's master bedroom. In December , another PDM employee, year-old Gregory Godzik, disappeared: he was last seen by his girlfriend outside her house after he had driven her home following a date.

He had informed his family that Gacy had had him "dig trenches for some kind of drain tiles" in his crawl space.

His parents and older sister, Eugenia, contacted Gacy about Greg's disappearance. Gacy claimed to the family that Greg had run away from home, having indicated to Gacy before his disappearance that he wished to do so.

Gacy also claimed to have received an answering machine message from Godzik shortly after he had disappeared. When asked if he could play back the message to Godzik's parents, Gacy stated that he had erased it.

Between December and March , Gacy is known to have killed an unidentified adult man. This victim was buried in the crawl space beneath the body of a year-old Michigan native named Jon Prestidge, who disappeared on March He was buried in the northeast section of the crawl space directly beneath the room Gacy used as his office.

Gacy murdered one further unidentified youth and buried him in the crawl space in the spring or early summer of , although the timing of this murder is inconclusive.

Bowman was last seen by his mother at a suburban train station. The following month, Michael Rossi was arrested for stealing gasoline from a service station while driving John Szyc's car.

The attendant noted the license plate number and police traced the car to Gacy's house. When questioned, Gacy told officers that Szyc had sold the car to him in February with the explanation that he needed money to leave town.

A check of the VIN number confirmed the car had belonged to Szyc. By the end of , Gacy is also known to have murdered an additional six young men between the ages of 16 and The first of these six victims was year-old Robert Gilroy, the son of a Chicago police sergeant, who was last seen alive on September He was murdered and buried in the crawl space.

On September 12, Gacy had flown to Pittsburgh to supervise a remodeling project and did not return to Chicago until September Ten days after Gilroy was last seen, year-old former U.

Marine John Mowery disappeared after leaving his mother's house to walk to his apartment. On October 17, year-old Minnesota native Russell Nelson disappeared: he was last seen outside a Chicago bar.

Nelson was in Chicago to look for contracting work. Less than four weeks later, year-old Kalamazoo teenager Robert Winch was murdered and buried in the crawl space, and on November 18, year-old father-of-one Tommy Boling disappeared after leaving a Chicago bar.

Three weeks after the murder of Tommy Boling, on December 9, a year-old U. Marine named David Talsma disappeared after informing his mother he was to attend a rock concert in Hammond.

On December 30, Gacy abducted year-old student Robert Donnelly from a Chicago bus stop at gunpoint. Gacy replied, "I'm getting round to it".

Donnelly reported the assault and Gacy was questioned by police on January 6, Gacy admitted to having had " slave-sex " with Donnelly, but insisted everything was consensual, adding that he "didn't pay the kid" the money he had promised him.

On March 21, Gacy lured year-old Jeffrey Rignall into his car. Upon entering the car, the young man was chloroformed and driven to the house on Summerdale, where his arms and head were restrained in a pillory device affixed to the ceiling.

He was later informed the chloroform had permanently damaged his liver. Rignall managed to stagger to his girlfriend's apartment.

Police were again informed of the assault but did not investigate Gacy. Rignall was able to recall, through the haze of that night, the Oldsmobile, the Kennedy Expressway and particular side streets.

He and two friends staked out the Cumberland exit of the Expressway when, in April, Rignall saw the Oldsmobile, which he and his friends followed to West Summerdale.

By , the crawl space could store no further bodies. The first known victim thrown from the I bridge into the Des Plaines River, year-old Timothy O'Rourke, was killed in mid-June after leaving his Dover Street apartment to purchase cigarettes.

Shortly before his disappearance, he had told his roommate that a contractor on the Northwest Side had offered him a job.

On November 4, Gacy killed year-old Frank Landingin. On the afternoon of December 11, , Gacy visited the Nisson Pharmacy in Des Plaines to discuss a potential remodeling deal with the store owner, Phil Torf.

Shortly after Gacy left the pharmacy, Piest's mother arrived at the store to drive her son home so the family could celebrate her forty-sixth birthday together.

In response, Gacy stated "good money" could be earned by hustling, although Piest was dismissive of this statement.

When Piest failed to return, his family filed a missing person report on their son with the Des Plaines police. Torf named Gacy as the contractor Piest had most likely left the store to talk with about a job.

Kozenczak and two other Des Plaines police officers visited Gacy at his home the following evening. Gacy indicated he had seen two youths working at the pharmacy and that he had asked one of them—whom he believed to be Piest—whether any remodeling materials were present in the rear of the store.

When questioned as to how soon he could come to the police station, he responded: "You guys are very rude. Don't you have any respect for the dead?

When asked why he had returned to the pharmacy, Gacy repeated his claim that he had done so in response to a phone call from Torf informing him he had left his appointment book at the store.

Detectives had already spoken with Torf, who had stated he had placed no such call to Gacy. Suspecting Gacy may be holding Piest against his will at his home, Des Plaines police obtained a warrant to search Gacy's house on December Investigators also found handcuffs, books on homosexuality and pederasty , seven pornographic films, capsules of amyl nitrite , [] and an inch dildo in Gacy's bedroom.

A blue hooded parka was found atop a tool box inside the laundry room, and underwear too small to fit Gacy was located inside a bathroom closet.

In the northwest bedroom, investigators found a Maine West High School ring, but the ring was not Piest's. This ring was a class of ring engraved with the initials J.

Gacy's Oldsmobile and other PDM work vehicles were confiscated by the Des Plaines police, who assigned two two-man surveillance teams to monitor Gacy on a rotational twelve-hour basis as they continued their investigation into his background and potential involvement in Piest's disappearance.

On December 15, Des Plaines investigators obtained further details upon Gacy's battery charge, learning the complainant, Jeffrey Rignall, had reported that Gacy had lured him into his car, then chloroformed, raped and tortured him before dumping him, with severe chest and facial burns and rectal bleeding, in Lincoln Park the following morning.

In an interview with Gacy's former wife the same day, they learned of the disappearance of John Butkovich.

By December 16, Gacy was becoming affable with the surveillance detectives, regularly inviting them to join him for meals in restaurants and occasionally for drinks in bars or within his home.

He repeatedly denied that he had anything to do with Piest's disappearance and accused the officers of harassing him because of his political connections or because of his recreational drug use.

Knowing these officers were unlikely to arrest him on anything trivial, he openly taunted them by flouting traffic laws and succeeded in losing his pursuers on more than one occasion.

Cram also divulged that, on one occasion, due to his poor timekeeping, Gacy had given him a watch, explaining he had obtained the item "from a dead person".

On December 17, investigators conducted a formal interview of Michael Rossi, who informed them Gacy had sold Szyc's vehicle to him with the explanation that he had bought the car from Szyc because Szyc needed money to move to California.

A further examination of Gacy's Oldsmobile was conducted on this date. In the course of examining the trunk of the car, the investigators discovered a small cluster of fibers which may have been human hair.

These fibers were sent for further analysis. That evening, officers conducted a test using three trained German shepherd search dogs to determine whether Piest had been present in any of Gacy's vehicles.

That evening, Gacy invited the surveillance detectives Albrecht and Hachmeister to a restaurant for a meal. In the early hours of December 18, he invited them into another restaurant where, over breakfast, he talked of his business, his marriages and his activities as a registered clown.

At one point during the conversation, Gacy remarked: "You know By December 18, Gacy was beginning to show visible signs of strain as a result of the constant surveillance: he was unshaven, looked tired, appeared anxious and was drinking heavily.

I'll be right back. The same evening, Michael Rossi was interviewed a second time: on this occasion, Rossi was more cooperative, informing detectives that in the summer of , Gacy had had him spread ten bags of lime in the crawl space of the house.

On December 19, investigators began compiling evidence for a second search warrant of Gacy's house. The same day, Gacy's lawyers filed the civil suit against the Des Plaines police.

The hearing of the suit was scheduled for December That afternoon, Gacy again invited surveillance detectives inside his house. On this occasion, as officer Robinson distracted Gacy with conversation, officer Schultz walked into Gacy's bedroom in an unsuccessful attempt to write down the serial number of the Motorola TV set they suspected belonged to John Szyc.

While flushing Gacy's toilet, this officer noticed a smell he suspected could be that of rotting corpses emanating from a heating duct ; the officers who previously searched Gacy's house had failed to notice this, as on that occasion the house had been cold.

Rossi had agreed to be interviewed in relation to his possible links with John Szyc as well as the disappearance of Robert Piest. When questioned by Kozenczak as to where he believed Gacy had placed Piest's body, Rossi replied: "In the crawl space; he could have put him in the crawl space".

Cram informed investigators of Gacy's attempts to rape him in and stated that after he and Gacy had returned to his home after the December 13 search of his property, Gacy had turned pale upon noting a clot of mud on his carpet which he suspected had come from his crawl space.

Cram then stated Gacy had grabbed a flashlight and immediately entered the crawl space to look for evidence of digging.

When asked whether he had been to the crawl space, Cram replied he had once been asked by Gacy to spread lime down there and had also dug trenches upon Gacy's behest with the explanation they were for drainage pipes.

On the evening of December 20, Gacy drove to his lawyers' office in Park Ridge to attend a scheduled meeting ostensibly to discuss the progress of his civil suit.

Upon his arrival Gacy appeared disheveled and immediately asked for an alcoholic drink whereupon Sam Amirante fetched a bottle of whiskey from his car.

Upon his return Amirante asked Gacy what he had to discuss with them. Gacy picked up a copy of the Daily Herald from Amirante's desk, pointed to a front-page article covering the disappearance of Robert Piest and said, "This boy is dead.

He's in a river". Over the following hours Gacy gave a rambling confession that ran into the early hours of the following morning. He began by informing Amirante and Stevens he had "been the judge Gacy dismissed his victims as " male prostitutes ", "hustlers" and "liars" to whom he gave "the rope trick", adding that he occasionally awoke to find "dead, strangled kids" on his floor, with their hands cuffed behind their back.

Upon awakening several hours later, Gacy simply shook his head when informed by Amirante he had earlier confessed to killing approximately 30 people, stating: "Well, I can't think about this right now.

I've got things to do". Ignoring his lawyers' advice regarding his scheduled appointment, Gacy left their office to attend to the needs of his business.

Gacy later recollected his memories of his final day of freedom as being "hazy", adding that he knew his arrest was inevitable and that, in his final hours of freedom, he intended to visit his friends and say his final farewells.

Jacobson immediately handed the bag to the surveillance officers, adding that Gacy had told him: "The end is coming for me.

These guys are going to kill me". Gacy then drove to the home of a fellow contractor, Ronald Rhode. Inside Rhode's living room, Gacy hugged Rhode before bursting into tears and saying: "I've been a bad boy.

I killed thirty people, give or take a few". As he drove along the expressway, the surveillance officers noted he was holding a rosary to his chin as he prayed while driving.

As Gacy spoke with his lawyer, Cram informed the officers that Gacy had divulged to him and Rossi that the previous evening, he had confessed to his lawyers his guilt in over thirty murders.

Gacy then had Cram drive him to Maryhill Cemetery, where his father was buried. As Gacy drove to various locations that morning, police outlined their formal draft of their second search warrant.

The purpose of the warrant was specifically to search for the body of Robert Piest in the crawl space. Upon hearing from the surveillance detectives that, in light of his erratic behavior, Gacy may be about to commit suicide, police decided to arrest him upon a charge of possession and distribution of marijuana [] in order to hold him in custody as the formal request for a second search warrant was presented.

Armed with the signed search warrant, police and evidence technicians drove to Gacy's home. Upon their arrival, officers found that Gacy had unplugged his sump pump and that the crawl space was flooded with water; to clear the water they simply replaced the plug and waited for the water to drain.

After it had done so, evidence technician Daniel Genty entered the byfoot 8. Genty immediately shouted to the investigators that they could charge Gacy with murder.

The victim was too decomposed to be Piest, and as the body was later unearthed, a crime scene technician discovered the skull of a second victim alongside this body.

Later excavations of the feet of this second victim revealed a further skull beneath the body. After being informed that the police had found human remains in his crawl space and that he would now face murder charges, Gacy told officers he wanted to "clear the air", adding that he had known his arrest was inevitable since the previous evening, which he had spent on the couch in his lawyers' office.

In the early morning hours of 22 December and in the presence of his lawyers, Gacy provided a formal statement, in which he confessed to murdering approximately 30 young males—all of whom he claimed had entered his house willingly.

When shown a driver's license issued to a Robert Hasten which had been found on his property, Gacy claimed not to know this individual, but admitted this license had been in the possession of one of his victims.

When specifically questioned about Piest, Gacy confessed to strangling him at his house on the evening of December 11 after luring him there.

He also admitted to having slept alongside Piest's body that evening, before disposing of the corpse in the Des Plaines River in the early hours of December In this accident, his vehicle had slid off an ice-covered road, and he had unsuccessfully attempted to free the vehicle himself before the vehicle had to be towed from its location.

Accompanied by police and his lawyers, Gacy was subsequently driven to the spot on the I bridge from which he had confessed to have thrown the bodies of Piest, Landingin, and three other victims that summer [] into the Des Plaines River.

During his confession, to assist officers in their search for the victims buried beneath his house, Gacy drew a rough diagram of his basement upon a phone message sheet to indicate where their bodies were buried.

Cook County medical examiner Robert Stein supervised the exhumations. All the victims discovered at W. Summerdale were in an advanced state of decomposition, and Stein chiefly relied upon dental records and X-ray charts to facilitate the identification of the remains.

Several bodies unearthed at Gacy's property were found with plastic bags over their heads or upper torsos. In some cases, bodies were found with foreign objects such as prescription bottles lodged into their pelvic region, the position of which indicated the items had been thrust into the victims' anus.

The crawl space was marked in sections and each body was given an identifying number. The first body recovered from the crawl space was assigned a marker denoting the victim as Body 1.

The body of John Butkovich was labelled as Body 2. The search for victims was temporarily postponed over Christmas. Four more bodies were unearthed on December On December 27, eight more bodies were discovered.

Both victims were found with a plastic bag placed over their head and upper torsos. This victim was found with a cloth rag lodged deep in his throat, causing this victim to die of suffocation.

The seventeenth victim was found with a ligature around his neck. The following day, four more bodies were exhumed. By December 29, six more bodies were unearthed.

Bodies 22, 23, 24, and 26 were buried in a common grave located beneath Gacy's kitchen and laundry room, [] with Body 25 located beneath Gacy's bathroom.

Two socks were recovered from the pelvic region. Bodies 23, 24 and 26 were buried beneath the laundry room. The bones of victims 23 and 24 were commingled together, and a section of cloth was found inside the mouth of Bodies 24 and Operations were suspended due to the Chicago Blizzard of , but resumed in March despite Gacy's insistence that all the buried victims had been found.

Stein concluded 12 victims recovered from Gacy's property died not of strangulation, but of asphyxiation. An autopsy was unable to discount strangulation as the cause of death.

The cause of death of Frank Landingin assigned victim number 32 was certified at autopsy as suffocation through his own underwear being lodged down his throat, plugging his airway and effectively causing him to drown in his own vomit.

On December 28, one further body linked to Gacy was found one mile from the I bridge. This victim was identified as James Mazzara, whom Gacy confessed to having murdered shortly after Thanksgiving.

On April 9, , a decomposed body was discovered entangled in exposed roots on the edge of the Des Plaines River in Grundy County. A subsequent autopsy revealed that three wads of "paper-like material" had been shoved down his throat while he was still alive, causing him to die of suffocation.

Gacy was brought to trial on February 6, , charged with 33 murders. At the request of his defense counsel, Gacy spent over three hundred hours in the year before his trial with the doctors at the Menard Correctional Center.

He underwent a variety of psychological tests before a panel of psychiatrists to determine whether he was mentally competent to stand trial.

Gacy had attempted to convince the doctors that he suffered from a multiple personality disorder. When Gacy had confessed to police, he claimed to be relaying the crimes of Jack, who detested homosexuality.

Presenting Gacy as a Jekyll and Hyde character, [] the defense produced several psychiatric experts who had examined Gacy the previous year to testify to their findings.

The prosecutors presented a case that indicated Gacy was sane and fully in control of his actions.

Those doctors refuted the defense doctors' claims of multiple personality and insanity. Cram and Rossi both confessed that Gacy had made them dig trenches and spread bags of lime in his crawl space.

Both testified that Gacy periodically looked into the crawl space to ensure they and other employees ordered to dig these trenches did not deviate from the precise locations he had marked.

Immediately after Cram had completed his testimony, Rossi testified for the state. When asked where he had dug in the crawl space, Rossi turned to a diagram of Gacy's home on display in the courtroom.

This diagram showed where the bodies were found in the crawl space and elsewhere on the property. Rossi pointed to the location of the remains of an unidentified victim known as "Body 13".

On February 18 Robert Stein testified that all the bodies recovered from Gacy's property were "markedly decomposed [and] putrefied, skeletalized remains", [] and that of all the autopsies he performed, thirteen victims had died of asphyxiation, six of ligature strangulation, one of multiple stab wounds to the chest, and ten in undetermined ways.

Jeffrey Rignall testified on behalf of the defense on February Asked whether Gacy appreciated the criminality of his actions, Rignall said he believed that Gacy was unable to conform his actions to the law's expectations because of the "beastly and animalistic ways he attacked me".

On February 29, Donald Voorhees, whom Gacy had sexually assaulted in , testified to his ordeal at Gacy's hands and Gacy's attempts to dissuade him from testifying by paying another youth to spray Mace in his face and beat him.

Robert Donnelly testified the week after Voorhees, recounting his ordeal at Gacy's hands in December Donnelly was visibly distressed as he recollected the abuse he endured and came close to breaking down on several occasions.

As Donnelly testified, Gacy repeatedly laughed at him, [] but Donnelly finished his testimony. During Donnelly's cross-examination, one of Gacy's defense attorneys, Robert Motta, attempted to discredit his testimony, but Donnelly did not waver from his testimony of what had occurred.

During the fifth week of the trial, Gacy wrote a personal letter to Judge Garippo requesting a mistrial [] on a number of bases, including that he did not approve of his lawyers' insanity plea strategy; that his lawyers had not allowed him to take the witness stand as he had desired to do ; that his defense had not called enough medical witnesses, and that the police were lying with regard to verbal statements he had purportedly made to detectives after his arrest and that, in any event, the statements were "self-serving" for use by the prosecution.

On March 11, final arguments from both prosecution and defense attorneys began, with the arguments concluding on the following day.

Prosecuting attorney Terry Sullivan argued first, outlining Gacy's history of abusing youths, the testimony of his efforts to avoid detection and describing Gacy's surviving victims—Voorhees and Donnelly—as "living dead".

I tremble when thinking about just how close he came to getting away with it all". After the state's four-hour closing, counsel Sam Amirante argued for the defense.

Amirante argued against the testimony delivered by the doctors who had testified for the prosecution, repeatedly citing the testimony of the four psychiatrists and psychologists who had testified on behalf of the defense.

Wayne took on the role of the eponymous detective in the crime drama McQ His last film was The Shootist , whose main character, J. Books, was dying of cancer—which Wayne himself succumbed to three years later.

The Shootist contains numerous plot similarities to The Gunfighter of nearly thirty years before, a role which Wayne had wanted but turned down.

Batjac , the production company cofounded by Wayne, was named after the fictional shipping company Batjak in Wake of the Red Witch , a film based on the novel by Garland Roark.

A spelling error by Wayne's secretary was allowed to stand, accounting for the variation. With a total of 25 years on the list, Wayne has more appearances than any other star, surpassing Clint Eastwood 21 who is in second place.

In later years, Wayne was recognized as a sort of American natural resource, and his various critics, of his performances and his politics, viewed him with more respect.

Abbie Hoffman , the radical of the s, paid tribute to Wayne's singularity, saying, "I like Wayne's wholeness, his style. As for his politics, well—I suppose even cavemen felt a little admiration for the dinosaurs that were trying to gobble them up.

Throughout most of his life, Wayne was a vocally prominent conservative Republican in Hollywood, supporting anti-communist positions. Roosevelt in the presidential election and expressed admiration for Roosevelt's successor, fellow Democratic President Harry S.

His personal views found expression as a proactive inside enforcer of the "Black List" denying employment and undermining careers of many actors and writers who expressed their personal political beliefs earlier in life.

Declassified Soviet documents reveal that, despite being a fan of Wayne's movies, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin according to some sources contemplated the assassination of Wayne for his frequently espoused anti-communist politics.

Wayne supported Vice President Richard Nixon in the presidential election of , but expressed his vision of patriotism when John F.

Kennedy won the election: "I didn't vote for him but he's my president, and I hope he does a good job. Due to his status as the highest-profile Republican star in Hollywood, wealthy Texas Republican Party backers asked Wayne to run for national office in , like his friend and fellow actor Senator George Murphy.

He declined, joking that he did not believe the public would seriously consider an actor in the White House. Instead, he supported his friend Ronald Reagan 's campaigns for Governor of California in and He was asked to be the running mate for Democratic Alabama Governor George Wallace in , but he immediately rejected the offer [58] and actively campaigned for Richard Nixon; [66] Wayne addressed the Republican National Convention on its opening day.

Wayne openly differed with many conservatives over the issue of returning the Panama Canal , as he supported the Panama Canal Treaty in the mids; [67] While Republican leaders such as Reagan, Jesse Helms and Strom Thurmond had wanted the U.

Buckley believed that the Panamanians had the right to the canal and sided with President Jimmy Carter. His support of the treaty brought him hate mail for the first time in his life.

In May , Playboy magazine published an interview with Wayne, in which he expressed his support for the Vietnam War , [70] and made headlines for his opinions about social issues and race relations in the United States: [71] [72].

With a lot of blacks, there's quite a bit of resentment along with their dissent, and possibly rightfully so. But we can't all of a sudden get down on our knees and turn everything over to the leadership of the blacks.

I don't feel we did wrong in taking this great country away from the Indians. Our so-called stealing of this country from them was just a matter of survival.

There were great numbers of people who needed new land, and the Indians were selfishly trying to keep it for themselves.

In the same Playboy interview, Wayne calls the two lead characters in Midnight Cowboy "fags" for the alleged "love of those two men".

I know all about that. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load I believe in welfare—a welfare work program.

I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living.

I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters.

I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim.

In March , the Playboy interview resurfaced, which resulted in calls for John Wayne Airport to be renamed. Similarly, in October , USC student activists called for the removal of an exhibit dedicated to the actor, citing the interview.

Wayne was married three times and divorced twice. Pilar was an avid tennis player. In , the club was sold to Ken Stuart , former general manager, and became the Palisades Tennis Club.

Several of Wayne's children entered the film and television industry. Son Ethan was billed as John Ethan Wayne in a few films, and played one of the leads in the s update of the Adam television series.

His stormiest divorce was from Esperanza Baur, a Mexican former actress. She believed that Wayne and co-star Gail Russell were having an affair, a claim which both Wayne and Russell denied.

The night the film Angel and the Badman wrapped, there was the usual party for cast and crew, and Wayne came home very late.

Esperanza was in a drunken rage by the time he arrived, and she attempted to shoot him as he walked through the front door. Wayne had several high-profile affairs, including one with Merle Oberon that lasted from to Wayne's hair began to thin in the s, and he had begun to wear a hairpiece by the end of the decade.

Not mine, but real hair. A close friend, California Congressman Alphonzo E. Bell Jr. It is perhaps best shown in these words he had engraved on a plaque: 'Each of us is a mixture of some good and some not so good qualities.

In considering one's fellow man it's important to remember the good things We should refrain from making judgments just because a fella happens to be a dirty, rotten S.

Wayne biographer Michael Munn chronicled Wayne's drinking habits. He underwent successful surgery to remove his entire left lung [88] and four ribs.

Despite efforts by his business associates to prevent him from going public with his illness for fear that it would cost him work, Wayne announced he had cancer and called on the public to get preventive examinations.

Five years later, Wayne was declared cancer-free. Wayne has been credited with coining the term "The Big C" as a euphemism for cancer.

He became a member of the York Rite. It was sold by his estate at his death. Wayne's yacht, the Wild Goose , was one of his favorite possessions.

He kept it docked in Newport Beach Harbor , and it was listed on the U. National Register of Historic Places in Wayne wore the same revolver in all the westerns that he appeared in.

Although he enrolled in a cancer vaccine study in an attempt to ward off the disease, [88] Wayne died of stomach cancer on June 11, , at the UCLA Medical Center.

Tomorrow is the most important thing in life. Comes into us at midnight very clean. It's perfect when it arrives and it puts itself in our hands.

It hopes we've learned something from yesterday. Among the cast and crew who filmed The Conqueror on location near St.

The film was shot in southwestern Utah , east of and generally downwind from the site of recent U. Many contend that radioactive fallout from these tests contaminated the film location and poisoned the film crew working there.

Wayne's enduring status as an iconic American was formally recognized by the U. On May 26, , he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.

Robert Aldrich , president of the Directors Guild of America , made a particularly notable statement:.

It is important for you to know that I am a registered Democrat and, to my knowledge, share none of the political views espoused by Duke.

However, whether he is ill disposed or healthy, John Wayne is far beyond the normal political sharpshooting in this community.

Because of his courage, his dignity, his integrity, and because of his talents as an actor, his strength as a leader, his warmth as a human being throughout his illustrious career, he is entitled to a unique spot in our hearts and minds.

In this industry, we often judge people, sometimes unfairly, by asking whether they have paid their dues. John Wayne has paid his dues over and over, and I'm proud to consider him a friend and am very much in favor of my government recognizing in some important fashion the contribution that Mr.

Wayne has made. He had attended Carter's inaugural ball in "as a member of the loyal opposition", as he described it. A larger than life-size bronze statue of Wayne atop a horse was erected at the corner of La Cienega Boulevard and Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California , at the former offices of the Great Western Savings and Loan Corporation, for which Wayne had made a number of commercials.

Several celebrations took place on May 26, , the centennial of Wayne's birth. Wayne's films ran repetitively at the local theater. Wayne rose beyond the typical recognition for a famous actor to that of an enduring icon who symbolized and communicated American values and ideals.

There's so goddamn few of us left. We got to play strong, tough characters. Not these weak queers. That we are a country that stands for freedom, for rightness, for justice," before adding that "it just simply doesn't apply.

Wayne's rise to being the quintessential movie war hero began to take shape four years after World War II, when Sands of Iwo Jima was released.

His footprints at Grauman's Chinese theater in Hollywood were laid in concrete that contained sand from Iwo Jima. Wayne is the only actor to appear in every edition of the annual Harris Poll of Most Popular Film Actors, and the only actor to appear on the list after his death.

Wayne was in the top ten in this poll for 19 consecutive years, starting in , 15 years after his death. The John Wayne Cancer Foundation was founded in in honor of John Wayne, after his family granted the use of his name and limited funding for the continued fight against cancer.

Newport Beach, California -based John Wayne Enterprises, a business operated by Wayne's heirs, sells products, including Kentucky straight bourbon , bearing the "Duke" brand and using Wayne's picture.

When the company tried to trademark the image appearing on one of the bottles, Duke University in Durham, North Carolina , filed a notice of opposition.

According to court documents, Duke has tried three times since to stop the company from trademarking the name. The company sought a declaration permitting registration of their trademark.

The company's complaint filed in federal court said the university did "not own the word 'Duke' in all contexts for all purposes.

Between and , Wayne appeared in over films, and became one of America's biggest box office stars. Only Clark Gable sold more tickets than Wayne, although the ticket prices paid during the span of their respective careers are not really commensurate.

While both men began performing on screen at the same time, the height of Gable's celebrity preceded Wayne's by approximately fifteen years.

The category's nominees for each year in which Wayne was nominated are shown, with that year's winner highlighted in yellow. The Golden Globe Awards are presented annually by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association HFPA to recognize outstanding achievements in the entertainment industry, both domestic and foreign, and to focus wide public attention upon the best in motion pictures and television.

The Cecil B. It was named in honor of Cecil B. DeMille — , one of the industry's most successful filmmakers; John Wayne won the award in In , The Harvard Lampoon , a satirical paper run by Harvard University students, invited Wayne to receive The Brass Balls Award, created in his "honor", after calling him "the biggest fraud in history".

Wayne accepted the invitation as a chance to promote the recently released film McQ , and a Fort Devens Army convoy offered to drive him into Harvard Square on an armored personnel carrier.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see John Wayne disambiguation. This article is about the actor. For the poet, see John Wain.

American actor. Winterset, Iowa , U. Los Angeles , California, U. Josephine Saenz. Esperanza Baur. Pilar Pallete. Play media. Wayne's most enduring image is that of the displaced loner uncomfortable with the very civilization he is helping to establish and preserve At his first appearance, we usually sense a very private person with some wound, loss or grievance from the past.

At his very best he is much closer to a tragic vision of life Main article: John Wayne filmography.

Biography portal. The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, Retrieved July 30, Government Printing Office.

The Numbers. Retrieved March 29, Reel Classics. Archived from the original on April 28, Retrieved March 25, Davis

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The seventeenth victim was found with a ligature around his neck. The following day, four more bodies were exhumed. By December 29, six more bodies were unearthed.

Bodies 22, 23, 24, and 26 were buried in a common grave located beneath Gacy's kitchen and laundry room, [] with Body 25 located beneath Gacy's bathroom.

Two socks were recovered from the pelvic region. Bodies 23, 24 and 26 were buried beneath the laundry room.

The bones of victims 23 and 24 were commingled together, and a section of cloth was found inside the mouth of Bodies 24 and Operations were suspended due to the Chicago Blizzard of , but resumed in March despite Gacy's insistence that all the buried victims had been found.

Stein concluded 12 victims recovered from Gacy's property died not of strangulation, but of asphyxiation. An autopsy was unable to discount strangulation as the cause of death.

The cause of death of Frank Landingin assigned victim number 32 was certified at autopsy as suffocation through his own underwear being lodged down his throat, plugging his airway and effectively causing him to drown in his own vomit.

On December 28, one further body linked to Gacy was found one mile from the I bridge. This victim was identified as James Mazzara, whom Gacy confessed to having murdered shortly after Thanksgiving.

On April 9, , a decomposed body was discovered entangled in exposed roots on the edge of the Des Plaines River in Grundy County.

A subsequent autopsy revealed that three wads of "paper-like material" had been shoved down his throat while he was still alive, causing him to die of suffocation.

Gacy was brought to trial on February 6, , charged with 33 murders. At the request of his defense counsel, Gacy spent over three hundred hours in the year before his trial with the doctors at the Menard Correctional Center.

He underwent a variety of psychological tests before a panel of psychiatrists to determine whether he was mentally competent to stand trial.

Gacy had attempted to convince the doctors that he suffered from a multiple personality disorder. When Gacy had confessed to police, he claimed to be relaying the crimes of Jack, who detested homosexuality.

Presenting Gacy as a Jekyll and Hyde character, [] the defense produced several psychiatric experts who had examined Gacy the previous year to testify to their findings.

The prosecutors presented a case that indicated Gacy was sane and fully in control of his actions. Those doctors refuted the defense doctors' claims of multiple personality and insanity.

Cram and Rossi both confessed that Gacy had made them dig trenches and spread bags of lime in his crawl space. Both testified that Gacy periodically looked into the crawl space to ensure they and other employees ordered to dig these trenches did not deviate from the precise locations he had marked.

Immediately after Cram had completed his testimony, Rossi testified for the state. When asked where he had dug in the crawl space, Rossi turned to a diagram of Gacy's home on display in the courtroom.

This diagram showed where the bodies were found in the crawl space and elsewhere on the property. Rossi pointed to the location of the remains of an unidentified victim known as "Body 13".

On February 18 Robert Stein testified that all the bodies recovered from Gacy's property were "markedly decomposed [and] putrefied, skeletalized remains", [] and that of all the autopsies he performed, thirteen victims had died of asphyxiation, six of ligature strangulation, one of multiple stab wounds to the chest, and ten in undetermined ways.

Jeffrey Rignall testified on behalf of the defense on February Asked whether Gacy appreciated the criminality of his actions, Rignall said he believed that Gacy was unable to conform his actions to the law's expectations because of the "beastly and animalistic ways he attacked me".

On February 29, Donald Voorhees, whom Gacy had sexually assaulted in , testified to his ordeal at Gacy's hands and Gacy's attempts to dissuade him from testifying by paying another youth to spray Mace in his face and beat him.

Robert Donnelly testified the week after Voorhees, recounting his ordeal at Gacy's hands in December Donnelly was visibly distressed as he recollected the abuse he endured and came close to breaking down on several occasions.

As Donnelly testified, Gacy repeatedly laughed at him, [] but Donnelly finished his testimony. During Donnelly's cross-examination, one of Gacy's defense attorneys, Robert Motta, attempted to discredit his testimony, but Donnelly did not waver from his testimony of what had occurred.

During the fifth week of the trial, Gacy wrote a personal letter to Judge Garippo requesting a mistrial [] on a number of bases, including that he did not approve of his lawyers' insanity plea strategy; that his lawyers had not allowed him to take the witness stand as he had desired to do ; that his defense had not called enough medical witnesses, and that the police were lying with regard to verbal statements he had purportedly made to detectives after his arrest and that, in any event, the statements were "self-serving" for use by the prosecution.

On March 11, final arguments from both prosecution and defense attorneys began, with the arguments concluding on the following day.

Prosecuting attorney Terry Sullivan argued first, outlining Gacy's history of abusing youths, the testimony of his efforts to avoid detection and describing Gacy's surviving victims—Voorhees and Donnelly—as "living dead".

I tremble when thinking about just how close he came to getting away with it all". After the state's four-hour closing, counsel Sam Amirante argued for the defense.

Amirante argued against the testimony delivered by the doctors who had testified for the prosecution, repeatedly citing the testimony of the four psychiatrists and psychologists who had testified on behalf of the defense.

The defense lawyer attempted to portray Gacy as a "man driven by compulsions he was unable to control", contending the State had not met their burden of proving Gacy sane beyond a reasonable doubt.

In support of these arguments, the defense counsel repeatedly referred to the testimony of the doctors who had appeared for the defense, in addition to the testimony of defense witnesses such as Jeffrey Rignall and Gacy's former business associate Mickel Ried—both of whom had testified to their belief that Gacy had been unable to control his actions.

On the morning of March 12, [] William Kunkle continued to argue for the prosecution. Kunkle referred to the defense's contention of insanity as "a sham ", arguing that the facts of the case demonstrated Gacy's ability to think logically and control his actions.

Kunkle also referred to the testimony of a doctor who had examined Gacy in This doctor had diagnosed Gacy as an antisocial personality , capable of committing crimes without remorse.

Kunkle indicated that had the recommendations of this doctor been heeded, Gacy would have not been freed. At the close of his argument, Kunkle pulled each of the 22 photos of Gacy's identified victims off a board displaying the images and asked the jury not to show sympathy but to "show justice".

Kunkle then asked the jury to "show the same sympathy this man showed when he took these lives and put them there!

After Kunkle had finished his testimony, the jury retired to consider their verdict. The jury deliberated for less than two hours [] and found Gacy guilty of the thirty-three charges of murder for which he had been brought to trial; he was also found guilty of sexual assault and taking indecent liberties with a child; both convictions in reference to Robert Piest.

In the sentencing phase of the trial, the jury deliberated for more than two hours before sentencing Gacy to death for each murder committed after the Illinois statute on capital punishment came into effect in June Upon being sentenced, Gacy was transferred to the Menard Correctional Center in Chester, Illinois , where he remained incarcerated on death row for 14 years.

On February 15, , Gacy was stabbed in the arm by Henry Brisbon, a fellow death row inmate known as the I killer.

At the time of this attack, Gacy had been participating in a voluntary work program when Brisbon ran towards him and stabbed him once in the upper arm with a sharpened wire.

A second death row inmate injured in the attack, William Jones, received a superficial stab wound to the head. Both received treatment in the prison hospital for their wounds.

After his incarceration, Gacy read numerous law books and filed voluminous motions and appeals, although he did not prevail in any.

Gacy's appeals related to issues such as the validity of the first search warrant granted to Des Plaines police on December 13, , and his objection to his lawyers' insanity plea defense at his trial.

In mid, the Supreme Court of Illinois upheld Gacy's conviction and ordered that he be executed by lethal injection on November The following year, Gacy filed a further post-conviction petition, seeking a new trial.

His then-defense lawyer, Richard Kling , argued that Gacy had been provided with ineffective legal counsel at his trial.

This post-conviction petition was dismissed on September 11, The decision that he be executed was again appealed by Gacy, although his conviction was again upheld on September 29, , with the Illinois Supreme Court setting a renewed execution date of January 11, After Gacy's final appeal to the U.

That afternoon, he was allowed a private picnic on the prison grounds with his family. For his last meal , Gacy ordered a bucket of Kentucky Fried Chicken, a dozen fried shrimp , french fries, fresh strawberries, and a Diet Coke.

Before the execution began, the chemicals used to perform the execution unexpectedly solidified, clogging the IV tube administering the chemicals into Gacy's arm and complicating the execution procedure.

Blinds covering the window through which witnesses observed the execution were drawn, and the execution team replaced the clogged tube to complete the procedure.

After ten minutes, the blinds were reopened and the execution resumed. The entire procedure took 18 minutes. This error apparently led to Illinois' subsequent adoption of an alternative method of lethal injection.

On this subject, one of the prosecutors at Gacy's trial, William Kunkle, said: "He got a much easier death than any of his victims".

According to published reports, Gacy was a diagnosed psychopath who did not express any remorse for his crimes. In the hours leading up to Gacy's execution, a crowd estimated to number over 1, gathered outside the correctional center; the majority of whom were vocally in favor of the execution, although a number of anti-death penalty protesters were also present.

It is in the possession of Helen Morrison , a witness for the defense at Gacy's trial, [] who has interviewed Gacy and other serial killers in an attempt to isolate common personality traits of violent sociopaths.

His body was cremated after the execution. In the months following Gacy's execution, many of his paintings were auctioned.

Some were bought so that they could be destroyed in a June communal bonfire held in Naperville, Illinois and attended by approximately people, including family members of nine of Gacy's victims.

Only 27 of Gacy's victims were ever conclusively identified. Of Gacy's identified victims, the youngest were Samuel Stapleton and Michael Marino, both 14; the oldest was Russell Nelson, who was Six victims have never been identified.

Their identities were confirmed via dental records on December 29, The thirty-third victim linked to Gacy, James Mazzara, was identified the following day.

Four further victims were identified on January 6: Body 18 was identified as Michael Bonnin; Body 25 was identified as Robert Gilroy; the first victim exhumed from the crawl space was identified as Jon Prestidge; and the victim labelled Body 16 was identified as Russell Nelson.

A fishing license issued to Bonnin had previously been found in Gacy's home. On January 27, dental charts were used to identify Body 20 as John Mowery.

Two days later, Body 8 was identified as Matthew Bowman. Two months later, on March 27, the twenty-second victim recovered from Gacy's property was identified via dental records as William Carroll.

Winch was identified via distinctive healed bone fractures. A distinctive brown "tiger's eye" metal buckle with black stripings belonging to Winch had previously been found in Gacy's home.

The sixth victim exhumed from Gacy's property was identified via dental records as Samuel Stapleton on November 14, In March , Bodies 14 and 15 were identified via dental and radiology records as those Michael Marino and Kenneth Parker.

Their identities were confirmed too late to include among the identified victims at Gacy's trial. In October , Cook County Sheriff Thomas Dart announced that investigators, having obtained full DNA profiles from each of the unidentified victims, were to renew their efforts to identify all of them.

At a press conference held to announce this intention, Sheriff Dart stated investigators are actively seeking DNA samples from individuals across the United States related to any male missing between and Test results thus far conducted have confirmed the identification of two victims, ruled out the possibility of numerous other missing youths as being victims of Gacy, [] [] and solved four unrelated cold cases dating between and However, the records had been destroyed after the dentist had retired.

He was the twenty-fourth victim exhumed from beneath Gacy's property. Six victims remain unidentified, five of whom had been buried beneath Gacy's crawl space, with one additional youth buried approximately 15 feet 4.

Based upon Gacy's confession, information relative to where the victims were buried in his crawl space relative to Gacy's identified victims, and forensic analysis, police were able to determine the most likely dates when his unidentified victims were killed.

This victim was buried near Gacy's barbecue pit, possibly in This man had two missing upper front teeth at the time of his disappearance, leading investigators to believe this particular victim most likely wore a denture.

This victim was almost certainly murdered between June 13 and August 5, Body 13 was a man likely to have been murdered between August and October He had long, dark brown, wavy hair and was between 18 and 22 years old.

He had light brown hair. As David Cram did not live with Gacy until August 21, , a possible date for this murder is between August 6 and 20, , although investigators have not discounted the possibility this victim may have been murdered later in Statements made by Gacy following his arrest leave a possibility this unidentified victim may have been murdered as early as At the time of Gacy's arrest, he had claimed to both Des Plaines and Chicago investigators that the total number of victims he had killed could be as high as Investigators did excavate the grounds of his property until they had exposed the substratum of clay beneath the foundations, yet only 29 bodies were found buried upon his property.

Gacy stated that after he had assaulted and then released Jeffrey Rignall in March , he had begun to throw his murder victims into the Des Plaines River.

He confessed to having disposed of five bodies in this manner. However, only four bodies recovered from the Des Plaines River were linked to Gacy.

Disputed DNA and dental tests conducted between and indicates that neither body found in the common grave in Gacy's crawl space and identified as those of Kenneth Parker and Michael Marino in was actually Marino.

In addition, the dental X-ray conducted upon the victim identified as Michael Marino had revealed the victim had all of his second molars , whereas a dental X-ray conducted upon Marino in March revealed one molar had not erupted.

Moreover, Rossi had stated that Hattula was known to have conflicts with Gacy, and when Hattula had "failed to show up at work", Gacy had informed him and several other employees Hattula had drowned.

Des Plaines authorities had contacted colleagues in Freeport during their investigation into Gacy, but were told Hattula had fallen to his death from a bridge.

However, Hattula's death has been officially ruled as asphyxia by drowning. Retired Chicago police officer Bill Dorsch has stated he has reason to believe there may be more victims buried within the grounds of the apartment building located at the block of West Miami Avenue in Chicago; a property which Gacy is known to have been the caretaker of for several years prior to his arrest.

When confronted by Dorsch as to his actions, Gacy stated he was performing work that he was too busy to do during the day. Dorsch has also related that several other residents of West Miami Avenue have stated that, in the early- to mids, they had observed Gacy digging trenches in the grounds of the property; [] one of these residents has also stated that Gacy later placed plants in the elongated trenches he had dug.

At the time these actions had been observed, Gacy had still been married to Carole Hoff. In March , Cook County Sheriff's officials submitted a request to excavate the grounds of this property.

The Cook County State's Attorney denied this request, stating a lack of probable cause as the reason the submission was denied including the results of a previous search of the property.

Of the 12 remaining anomalies which police had not examined in greater detail on that occasion, four were described as being "staggeringly suggestive" as human skeletons.

This request was granted in January , and a search of the property was conducted in the spring. Both FBI sniffer dogs and ground-penetrating radar equipment were used in the second search of West Miami Avenue; however, the search yielded no human remains.

One of the first things Gacy told investigators after his arrest was that he had not acted alone in several of the murders: he asked whether "my associates" had also been arrested.

When questioned as to whether these associates had participated directly or indirectly in the killings, Gacy replied, "Directly".

Gacy later specifically named Cram and Rossi as being involved in several of the murders. In the s, he also informed Robert Ressler that "two or three" PDM employees had assisted in several murders.

Gacy neither confirmed nor denied Ressler's suspicions. Jeffrey Rignall, who had been assaulted and tortured by Gacy in March , was adamant that at one point during his abuse and torture, a young man with brown hair, kneeling before him, watched his abuse.

Moreover, on one occasion during the surveillance of Gacy, three days prior to his arrest, two officers followed him to a bar to which Gacy had driven to meet two of his employees: Michael Rossi and Ed Hefner.

An anxious Gacy was observed walking with the two out of earshot of the surveillance officers to talk privately before the three walked back within earshot of the officers, with Gacy exclaiming to both young men: "You'd better not let me down, you fuckers.

You owe it to me". The officers then overheard sections of a hushed conversation between Gacy and the two in which Rossi asked Gacy, "And what?

Buried like the other five? In interviews from death row, Gacy stated that at the time of his arrest, three PDM employees were also considered suspects in the disappearances of the missing boys investigators had linked to Gacy—all of whom he stated were in possession of keys to his house.

At the time, Norman operated a nationwide sex trafficking ring based in Chicago known as the Delta Project. Gacy also claimed that he was not present in Chicago when 16 of the identified victims had disappeared.

In , two Chicago lawyers claimed travel records show that Gacy had been in another state at the time of three of the murders, implying he was assisted by one or more accomplices.

Investigators also note that Robert Young, the traveling companion with whom victim Russell Nelson was visiting Chicago at the time of his October disappearance, gave differing accounts of Nelson disappearance to both Nelson's family and investigators.

To Nelson's family, Young had stated Nelson failed to arrive at a bar at a prearranged time; to investigators, Young claimed he had last seen Nelson standing among a crowd who had gathered outside a Chicago bar and when his attention was diverted for a few moments, Nelson simply disappeared.

Investigators contend this could not have happened without his traveling companion noticing. Young is known to have filed a missing person's report with Chicago police, before unsuccessfully requesting money from Nelson's parents to finance a search for their son.

Two witnesses have stated that this roommate had recommended to Mowery that he meet "a man who is going out of town" two days before Mowery disappeared.

Criminal defense attorneys and investigators researching the possibility Gacy had not acted alone in several of the murders have stated there is "overwhelming evidence Gacy worked with an accomplice".

In , Sam Amirante, one of Gacy's two defense attorneys at his trial, authored procedures that were incorporated by the Illinois General Assembly into the Missing Child Recovery Act of Amirante has since stated that the primary inspiration for this legislation was the fact that at the time of the Gacy murders, there had been a hour period which police in Illinois had to allow to elapse before initiating a search for a missing child or adolescent.

Other states across America subsequently adopted similar procedures and sensibilities, as a result of which a national network aimed at locating missing children was gradually formed.

This national network has since developed into the Child Abduction Emergency—commonly known today as an Amber Alert.

Isolated in his prison cell, Gacy began to paint. The subjects he chose were varied, from birds to skulls, even other murderers.

Many were of clowns, including himself as Pogo or Patches. His "Hi Ho" series includes scenes from the Seven Dwarfs. Although Gacy was permitted to earn money from the sale of his paintings until , he claimed his artwork was intended "to bring joy into people's lives".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gacy disambiguation. American serial killer and clown.

Chicago , Illinois , U. Marlynn Myers. Carole Hoff. He can produce an 'alibi' for everything. He presents himself as a victim of circumstances and blames other people who are out to get him Crawl space.

John Butkovich 18 July 31, Body 2. Darrell Julius Samson 18 April 6, Body Dining room. Randall Wayne Reffett 15 May 14, Body 7.

Samuel G. Dodd Stapleton 14 May 14, Body 6. Michael Bonnin 17 June 3, Body William Huey Carroll, Jr. James Byron Haakenson 16 August 5, Body Rick Louis Johnston 17 August 6, Body Kenneth Ray Parker 16 October 24, Body Michael Marino 14 October 24, Body William George Bundy 19 October 26, Body Gregory John Godzik 17 December 12, Body 4.

John Alan Szyc 19 January 20, Body 3. Jon Steven Prestidge 20 March 15, Body 1. Matthew Bowman 19 July 5, Body 8.

Robert Edward Gilroy, Jr. John Antheney Mowery 19 September 25, Body Russell Lloyd Nelson 21 October 17, Body Robert Winch 16 November 10, Body Tommy Joe Boling 20 November 18, Body David Paul Talsma 19 December 9, Body William Wayne Kindred 19 February 16, Body Timothy D.

O'Rourke 20 June 16—23, Body Des Plaines river. Frank William Landingin 19 November 4, Body James Mazzara 20 November 24, Body Robert Jerome Piest 15 December 11, Body He justified his actions by claiming the bodies he had defiled were "just dead things" who "couldn't tell anybody".

Gacy was unable to raise his bond fee, and was transferred to the Anamosa State Penitentiary to begin his sentence on December 11, In June of that year, by mutual agreement, the engagement was called off and she moved out.

This wound was first seen by his older sister, Joanne, at a family wake Gacy attended on the afternoon of January 3. Oh, I see Jack drew a diagram of the crawl space".

He did not perform autopsies upon the three other victims recovered from the Des Plaines River. According to Gacy's account, his second victim had also been buried in the crawl space close to his first.

However, at his trial, prosecutor William Kunkle reasoned Gacy's second murder victim must have been the unidentified victim buried near his barbecue pit.

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Archived from the original on November 7, Although greeted with lukewarm reviews upon its release, Rio Bravo is now regarded as a classic western.

After a screen career of more than 40 years, Wayne was honoured with an Academy Award for his portrayal of the drunken, cantankerous , but endearing U.

This role was a poignant screen farewell for an actor who himself would succumb to cancer three years later. Wayne endured criticism throughout his career from those who questioned his versatility as an actor.

His ability to convey quiet tenderness, however, and his capacity for multilayered portrayals of complex characters, as in Red River and The Searchers , was often overlooked.

Wayne himself was also the subject of controversy: his outspoken right-wing politics were admired by conservatives but derided by liberals as being naively jingoistic.

His politics notwithstanding, he is considered a towering cinematic icon and, to some, the greatest Hollywood star of all time.

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John Wyne Inhaltsverzeichnis

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