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The majestic central dome, which reaches a height of feet 73 metres at the tip of its finial , is surrounded by four lesser domes.
The acoustics inside the main dome cause the single note of a flute to reverberate five times. The interior of the mausoleum is organized around an octagonal marble chamber ornamented with low-relief carvings and semiprecious stones pietra dura.
Those false tombs are enclosed by a finely wrought filigree marble screen. Beneath the tombs, at garden level, lie the true sarcophagi.
Standing gracefully apart from the central building, at each of the four corners of the square plinth, are elegant minarets. The garden is set out along classical Mughal lines—a square quartered by long watercourses pools —with walking paths, fountains, and ornamental trees.
The southern end of the complex is graced by a wide red sandstone gateway with a recessed central arch two stories high.
The main arch is flanked by two pairs of smaller arches. Crowning the northern and southern facades of the gateway are matching rows of white chattri s chhattri s; cupola-like structures , 11 to each facade, accompanied by thin ornamental minarets that rise to some 98 feet 30 metres.
At the four corners of the structure are octagonal towers capped with larger chattri s. Two notable decorative features are repeated throughout the complex: pietra dura and Arabic calligraphy.
The colours serve to moderate the dazzling expanse of the white Makrana marble. One of the inscriptions in the sandstone gateway is known as Daybreak —30 and invites the faithful to enter paradise.
Calligraphy also encircles the soaring arched entrances to the mausoleum proper. To ensure a uniform appearance from the vantage point of the terrace, the lettering increases in size according to its relative height and distance from the viewer.
Over the centuries the Taj Mahal has been subject to neglect and decay. A major restoration was carried out at the beginning of the 20th century under the direction of Lord Curzon , then the British viceroy of India.
More recently, air pollution caused by emissions from foundries and other nearby factories and exhaust from motor vehicles has damaged the mausoleum, notably its marble facade.
A number of measures have been taken to reduce the threat to the monument, among them the closing of some foundries and the installation of pollution-control equipment at others, the creation of a parkland buffer zone around the complex, and the banning of nearby vehicular traffic.
A restoration and research program for the Taj Mahal was initiated in Progress in improving environmental conditions around the monument has been slow, however.
Night viewing was banned there between and because it was feared that the monument would be a target of Sikh militants. In addition, it increasingly has come to be seen as an Indian cultural symbol.
Some Hindu nationalist groups have attempted to diminish the importance of the Muslim influence in accounting for the origins and design of the Taj Mahal.
Taj Mahal. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The pen box and writing tablet are traditional Mughal funerary icons decorating the caskets of men and women respectively.
The tomb of Shah Jahan bears a calligraphic inscription that reads; "He travelled from this world to the banquet-hall of Eternity on the night of the twenty-sixth of the month of Rajab , in the year Hijri.
The garden uses raised pathways that divide each of the four-quarters of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds. Halfway between the tomb and gateway in the centre of the garden is a raised marble water tank with a reflecting pool positioned on a north-south axis to reflect the image of the mausoleum.
The elevated marble water tank is called al Hawd al-Kawthar in reference to the "Tank of Abundance" promised to Muhammad. Elsewhere, the garden is laid out with avenues of trees labeled according to common and scientific names  and fountains.
The charbagh garden , a design inspired by Persian gardens , was introduced to India by Babur , the first Mughal emperor. It symbolises the four flowing rivers of Jannah Paradise and reflects the Paradise garden derived from the Persian paridaeza , meaning 'walled garden.
Most Mughal charbaghs are rectangular with a tomb or pavilion in the centre. The Taj Mahal garden is unusual in that the main element, the tomb, is located at the end of the garden.
With the discovery of Mahtab Bagh or "Moonlight Garden" on the other side of the Yamuna, the interpretation of the Archaeological Survey of India is that the Yamuna river itself was incorporated into the garden's design and was meant to be seen as one of the rivers of Paradise.
By the end of the 19th century, the British Empire controlled more than three-fifths of India,  and assumed management of the Taj Mahal.
They changed the landscaping to their liking which more closely resembled the formal lawns of London. The Taj Mahal complex is bordered on three sides by crenellated red sandstone walls; the side facing the river is open.
Outside the walls are several additional mausoleums, including those of Shah Jahan's other wives , and a larger tomb for Mumtaz's favourite servant.
The main gateway darwaza is a monumental structure built primarily of marble, and reminiscent of the Mughal architecture of earlier emperors.
Its archways mirror the shape of the tomb's archways, and its pishtaq arches incorporate the calligraphy that decorates the tomb. The vaulted ceilings and walls have elaborate geometric designs like those found in the other sandstone buildings in the complex.
At the far end of the complex are two grand red sandstone buildings that mirror each other, and face the sides of the tomb. The backs of the buildings parallel the western and eastern walls.
The western building is a mosque and the other is the jawab answer , thought to have been constructed for architectural balance although it may have been used as a guesthouse.
Distinctions between the two buildings include the jawab's lack of a mihrab a niche in a mosque's wall facing Mecca , and its floors of geometric design whereas the floor of the mosque is laid with outlines of prayer rugs in black marble.
The Mughal mosques of this period divide the sanctuary hall into three areas comprising a main sanctuary and slightly smaller sanctuaries on either side.
At the Taj Mahal, each sanctuary opens onto an expansive vaulting dome. The outlying buildings were completed in The Taj Mahal is built on a parcel of land to the south of the walled city of Agra.
Shah Jahan presented Maharajah Jai Singh with a large palace in the centre of Agra in exchange for the land.
In the tomb area, wells were dug and filled with stone and rubble to form the footings of the tomb.
Instead of lashed bamboo , workmen constructed a colossal brick scaffold that mirrored the tomb. The scaffold was so enormous that foremen estimated it would take years to dismantle.
The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all over India and Asia. It is believed over 1, elephants were used to transport building materials.
It took the efforts of 22, labourers, painters, embroidery artists and stonecutters to shape the Taj Mahal. The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan , while the sapphire came from Sri Lanka and the carnelian from Arabia.
In all, twenty-eight types of precious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into the white marble. According to the legend, Shah Jahan decreed that anyone could keep the bricks taken from the scaffold, and thus it was dismantled by peasants overnight.
Water was drawn from the river by a series of purs , an animal-powered rope and bucket mechanism, into a large storage tank and raised to a large distribution tank.
It was passed into three subsidiary tanks, from which it was piped to the complex. The plinth and tomb took roughly 12 years to complete.
The remaining parts of the complex took an additional 10 years and were completed in order of minarets, mosque and jawab, and gateway. Since the complex was built in stages, discrepancies exist in completion dates due to differing opinions on "completion".
Construction of the mausoleum itself was essentially completed by  while work on the outlying buildings continued for years.
Estimates of the cost of construction vary due to difficulties in estimating costs across time. The total cost at the time has been estimated to be about 32 million Indian rupees,  which is around Upon Shah Jahan's death, Aurangzeb buried him in the mausoleum next to his wife.
Kanbo, a Mughal historian, said the gold shield which covered the 4. By the late 19th century, parts of the buildings had fallen into disrepair.
At the end of the 19th century, British viceroy Lord Curzon ordered a sweeping restoration project, which was completed in During this time the garden was remodelled with European-style lawns that are still in place today.
In , the government erected scaffolding to disguise the building in anticipation of air attacks by the Japanese Air Force.
More recent threats have come from environmental pollution on the banks of the Yamuna River including acid rain  due to the Mathura Oil Refinery , [ citation needed ] which was opposed by Supreme Court of India directives.
Concerns for the tomb's structural integrity have recently been raised because of a decline in the groundwater level in the Yamuna river basin which is falling at a rate of around 1.
In , cracks appeared in parts of the tomb, and the minarets which surround the monument were showing signs of tilting, as the wooden foundation of the tomb may be rotting due to lack of water.
It has been pointed out by politicians, however, that the minarets are designed to tilt slightly outwards to prevent them from crashing on top of the tomb in the event of an earthquake.
In , it was reported that some predictions indicated that the tomb could collapse within five years. Small minarets located at two of the outlying buildings were reported as damaged by a storm on April 11, The Taj Mahal attracts a large number of tourists.
Polluting traffic is not allowed near the complex and tourists must either walk from parking areas or catch an electric bus. The Khawasspuras northern courtyards are currently being restored for use as a new visitor centre.
The small town to the south of the Taj, known as Taj Ganji or Mumtazabad, was initially constructed with caravanserais , bazaars and markets to serve the needs of visitors and workers.
The grounds are open from to weekdays, except for Friday when the complex is open for prayers at the mosque between and The complex is open for night viewing on the day of the full moon and two days before and after,  excluding Fridays and the month of Ramadan.
Foreign dignitaries often visit the Taj Mahal on trips to India. Ever since its construction, the building has been the source of an admiration transcending culture and geography, and so personal and emotional responses have consistently eclipsed scholastic appraisals of the monument.
It was suggested that his son Aurangzeb overthrew Shah Jahan before it could be built. Ruins of blackened marble across the river in Moonlight Garden , Mahtab Bagh, seemed to support this legend.
However, excavations carried out in the s found that they were discoloured white stones that had turned black. A dark reflection of the white mausoleum could clearly be seen, befitting Shah Jahan's obsession with symmetry and the positioning of the pool itself.
Warrior Empire: The Mughals of India. No evidence exists for claims that describe, often in horrific detail, the deaths, dismemberments and mutilations which Shah Jahan supposedly inflicted on various architects and craftsmen associated with the tomb.
Some stories claim that those involved in construction signed contracts committing themselves to have no part in any similar design. Similar claims are made for many famous buildings.
Bentinck's biographer John Rosselli says that the story arose from Bentinck's fund-raising sale of discarded marble from Agra Fort. Another myth suggests that beating the silhouette of the finial will cause water to come forth.
To this day, officials find broken bangles surrounding the silhouette. In , India's Supreme Court dismissed P. Oak 's petition  to declare that a Hindu king built the Taj Mahal.
A theory that the Taj Mahal was designed by an Italian, Geronimo Vereneo, held sway for a brief period after it was first promoted by Henry George Keene in who went by a translation of a Spanish work Itinerario , The Travels of Fray Sebastian Manrique, — These ideas were revived by Father Hosten and discussed again by E.
Havell and served as the basis for subsequent theories and controversies. As of , several court cases about Taj Mahal being a Hindu temple have been inspired by P.
Oak's theory. The BJP government's union minister of culture Mahesh Sharma stated in November during a session of the parliament, that there was no evidence that it was a temple.
A controversy was created in when the Uttar Pradesh government did not include it in its official tourism booklet "Uttar Pradesh Tourism - Unlimited Possibilities".
The chief minister Yogi Adityanath had earlier claimed it does not represent Indian culture. He claimed it was built by a man who jailed his own father and wished to kill Hindus.
CM Adityanath stated Som's comments were personal and the government will focus on the tourism potential of every monument.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Taj Mahal disambiguation. Marble mausoleum in Agra, India. Location of Taj Mahal in Uttar Pradesh.
Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal. Main article: Origins and architecture of the Taj Mahal.
Play media. Taj Mahal gallery. Interior view of the vaulted dome over the tombs of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz. The false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the main chamber.
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level. Detailed exterior design. Detailed interior design.
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World architecture: an illustrated history from earliest times. Crescent Books. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 19 October Dixon, Jack S.
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