Wizard Od Oz HarperCollins
Ein Sturm trägt die kleine Dorothy Gayle in das magische Land Oz. Verzweifelt macht sie sich auf den Weg in die Hauptstadt, wo der große Zauberer von Oz lebt. Nur er kann ihre Rückkehr nach Hause ermöglichen. Der Weg dorthin wird zu einer Reise. Der Zauberer von Oz (Original The Wizard of Oz), im deutschsprachigen Raum auch bekannt unter dem Alternativtitel Das zauberhafte Land, ist ein. Der Zauberer von Oz ist ein Kinderbuch des US-amerikanischen Schriftstellers Lyman Frank Baum. Die Erzählung erschien unter dem Originaltitel The. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (The Wizard of Oz Series) (English Edition) eBook: Baum, L. Frank, Denslow, W. W., Hearn, Michael Patrick: wermlandsalpacka.se Audiokommentar von Filmhistoriker; Märchenbuch 'The Wonderful Wizard of Oz'; Prettier than ever: Eine Legende wird restauriert; Wir wurden einander.
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (The Wizard of Oz Series) (English Edition) eBook: Baum, L. Frank, Denslow, W. W., Hearn, Michael Patrick: wermlandsalpacka.se Der Zauberer von Oz ist ein Kinderbuch des US-amerikanischen Schriftstellers Lyman Frank Baum. Die Erzählung erschien unter dem Originaltitel The. Thalia: Infos zu Autor, Inhalt und Bewertungen ❤ Jetzt»The Wizard of Oz«nach Hause oder Ihre Filiale vor Ort bestellen!
Wallace Beery lobbied for the role, but the studio refused to spare him during the long shooting schedule. Instead, another contract player, Frank Morgan , was cast on September An extensive talent search produced over a hundred little people to play Munchkins; this meant that most of the film's Oz sequences would have to already be shot before work on the Munchkinland sequence could begin.
Meinhardt Raabe , who played the coroner, revealed in the documentary The Making of the Wizard of Oz that the MGM costume and wardrobe department, under the direction of designer Adrian , had to design over costumes for the Munchkin sequences.
They then had to photograph and catalog each Munchkin in his or her costume so that they could correctly apply the same costume and makeup each day of production.
Gale Sondergaard was originally cast as the Wicked Witch. She became unhappy when the witch's persona shifted from sly and glamorous thought to emulate the wicked queen in Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs into the familiar "ugly hag".
Sondergaard said in an interview for a bonus feature on the DVD that she had no regrets about turning down the part, and would go on to play a glamorous villainess in Fox's version of Maurice Maeterlinck 's The Blue Bird in ;  Margaret Hamilton played a role remarkably similar to the Wicked Witch in the Judy Garland film Babes in Arms According to Aljean Harmetz, the "gone-to-seed" coat worn by Morgan as the wizard was selected from a rack of coats purchased from a second-hand shop.
According to legend, Morgan later discovered a label in the coat indicating it had once belonged to Baum, that Baum's widow confirmed this, and that the coat was eventually presented to her.
But Baum biographer Michael Patrick Hearn says the Baum family denies ever seeing the coat or knowing of the story; Hamilton considered it to be a rumor concocted by the studio.
Filming for The Wizard of Oz started on October 13, on the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio lot in Culver City, California , with Richard Thorpe as director, replacing the original director, Norman Taurog , who filmed a few early Technicolor tests and was then reassigned.
Thorpe initially shot about two weeks of footage, nine days in total, involving Dorothy's first encounter with the Scarecrow, as well as a number of sequences in the Wicked Witch's castle, such as Dorothy's rescue, which, though unreleased, includes the only footage of Buddy Ebsen 's Tin Man.
The production faced the challenge of simulating the Tin Man's costume. Several tests were done to find the right makeup and clothes for Ebsen.
He was hospitalized in critical condition and subsequently was forced to leave the project; in a later interview included on the DVD release of The Wizard of Oz , he recalled the studio heads appreciated the seriousness of his illness only after seeing him in the hospital.
Filming halted while a replacement for him was found. His replacement, Jack Haley , simply assumed he had been fired. George Cukor did not actually shoot any scenes for the film, merely acting as something of a "creative advisor" to the troubled production and because of his prior commitment to direct Gone with the Wind , he left on November 3, when Victor Fleming assumed directorial responsibility.
As director, Fleming chose not to shift the film from Cukor's creative realignment, as producer LeRoy had already pronounced his satisfaction with the new course the film was taking.
Production on the bulk of the Technicolor sequences was a long and exhausting process that ran for over six months, from October to March Bolger later said that the frightening nature of the costumes prevented most of the Oz principals from eating in the studio commissary;  the toxicity of Hamilton's copper-based makeup forced her to eat a liquid diet on shoot days.
All the Oz sequences were filmed in three-strip Technicolor. The movie was not the first to use Technicolor, which was introduced in The Gulf Between , released in In Hamilton's exit from Munchkinland, a concealed elevator was arranged to lower her below stage level as fire and smoke erupted to dramatize and conceal her exit.
The first take ran well, but in the second take, the burst of fire came too soon. The flames set fire to her green, copper-based face paint, causing third-degree burns on her hands and face.
She spent three months healing before returning to work. The next day, the studio assigned Fleming's friend, King Vidor , as director, in order to finish the filming of The Wizard of Oz mainly the early sepia-toned Kansas sequences, including Garland's singing of " Over the Rainbow " and the tornado.
Although the film was a hit in , Vidor chose not to take public credit for his contribution until his friend died in Arnold Gillespie was the special effects director for the film.
Gillespie worked with the production using several visual effects techniques for the movie. Gillespie used muslin cloth to make the tornado flexible after a previous attempt with rubber failed.
He hung the 35 feet of muslin from a steel gantry and connected the bottom to a rod. By moving the gantry and rod, he was able to create the illusion of a tornado moving across the stage.
Fuller's earth was sprayed from both the top and bottom using compressed air hoses to complete the effect. Dorothy's house was recreated by using a model.
The Cowardly Lion and Scarecrow masks were made of foam latex makeup created by makeup artist Jack Dawn , who was one of the first makeup artists to use this technique.
It took an hour each day to slowly peel the glued-on mask from his face. At the time, she was wearing her green makeup, which was usually removed with acetone due to its toxic copper content.
Because of Hamilton's burns, makeup artist Jack Young removed the makeup with alcohol, to prevent infection. The film is famous for its musical selections and soundtrack.
The song ranked first in the AFI's Years Georgie Stoll was associate conductor, and screen credit was given to George Bassman , Murray Cutter , Ken Darby and Paul Marquardt for orchestral and vocal arrangements as usual, Roger Edens was also heavily involved as an unbilled musical associate to Freed.
The songs were recorded in the studio's scoring stage before filming. Several of the recordings were completed while Ebsen was still with the cast.
Therefore, although he had to be dropped from the cast because of a dangerous reaction to the aluminum powder makeup, his singing voice remained on the soundtrack as mentioned in the notes for the CD Deluxe Edition.
His voice can be heard in the group vocals of "We're Off to See the Wizard". Haley rerecorded Ebsen's solo parts later. Bolger's original recording of " If I Only Had a Brain " was far more sedate than the version heard in the film.
During filming, Cukor and LeRoy decided that a more energetic rendition would better suit Dorothy's initial meeting with the Scarecrow, and the song was rerecorded.
The original version was thought to be lost until a copy was discovered in The song "The Jitterbug", written in a swing style, was intended for the sequence in which the group is journeying to the Witch's castle.
Due to time constraints, the song was cut from the final theatrical version. The film footage for the song has been lost, although silent home film footage of rehearsals for the number has survived.
The sound recording for the song, however, is intact and was included in the two-CD Rhino Records deluxe edition of the film soundtrack, as well as on the VHS and DVD editions of the film.
A reference to "The Jitterbug" remains in the film: the Witch remarks to her flying monkeys that they should have no trouble apprehending Dorothy and her friends because "I've sent a little insect on ahead to take the fight out of them.
Another musical number cut before release came right after the Wicked Witch of the West was melted and before Dorothy and her friends returned to the Wizard.
This was a reprise of "Ding-Dong! The witch is dead! The Wicked Witch is dead! Today, the film of this scene is also lost, and only a few stills survive, along with a few seconds of footage used on several reissue trailers.
The entire audio track still exists and is included on the two-CD Rhino Record deluxe edition of the film soundtrack. In addition, Garland was to sing a brief reprise of "Over the Rainbow" while Dorothy is trapped in the Witch's castle, but it was cut because it was considered too emotionally intense.
The original soundtrack recording still exists, however, and was included as an extra in all home media releases from onwards.
Extensive edits in the film's final cut removed vocals from the last portion of the film. However, the film was fully underscored , with instrumental snippets from the film's various leitmotifs throughout.
There was also some recognizable classical and popular music, including:. Principal photography concluded with the Kansas sequences on March 16, Reshoots and pick-up shots were filmed throughout April and May and into June, under the direction of producer LeRoy.
After the deletion of the "Over the Rainbow" reprise after subsequent test screenings in early June, Garland had to be brought back one more time to reshoot the "Auntie Em, I'm frightened!
The footage of Blandick's Aunt Em, as shot by Vidor, had already been set aside for rear-projection work, and was simply reused.
After Hamilton's torturous experience with the Munchkinland elevator, she refused to do the pick-ups for the scene in which she flies on a broomstick that billows smoke, so LeRoy had stunt double Betty Danko perform instead.
Danko was severely injured due to a malfunction in the smoke mechanism. At this point, the film began a long, arduous post-production. Herbert Stothart had to compose the film's background score, while A.
Arnold Gillespie had to perfect the various special effects that the film required, including many of the rear projection shots. The MGM art department also had to create various matte paintings for the backgrounds of many of the scenes.
One significant innovation planned for the film was the use of stencil printing for the transition to Technicolor. Each frame was to be hand-tinted to maintain the sepia tone.
During the reshoots in May, the inside of the farm house was painted sepia, and when Dorothy opens the door, it is not Garland, but her stand-in, Bobbie Koshay, wearing a sepia gingham dress, who then backs out of frame.
Once the camera moves through the door, Garland steps back into frame in her bright blue gingham dress as noted in DVD extras , and the sepia-painted door briefly tints her with the same color before she emerges from the house's shadow, into the bright glare of the Technicolor lighting.
This also meant that the reshoots provided the first proper shot of Munchkinland. If one looks carefully, the brief cut to Dorothy looking around outside the house bisects a single long shot, from the inside of the doorway to the pan-around that finally ends in a reverse-angle as the ruins of the house are seen behind Dorothy and she comes to a stop at the foot of the small bridge.
Test screenings of the film began on June 5, In , the average movie ran for about 90 minutes. LeRoy and Fleming knew they needed to cut at least 15 minutes to get the film down to a manageable running time.
The Witch Is Dead ", and a number of smaller dialogue sequences. This left the final, mostly serious portion of the film with no songs, only the dramatic underscoring.
MGM felt that it made the Kansas sequence too long, as well as being far over the heads of the target audience of children. The studio also thought that it was degrading for Garland to sing in a barnyard.
LeRoy, uncredited associate producer Arthur Freed and director Fleming fought to keep it in, and they eventually won. The song went on to win the Academy Award for Best Song of the Year and came to be identified so strongly with Garland herself that she made it her theme song.
After the preview in San Luis Obispo in early July, the film was officially released in August at its current minute running time. They continued to perform there after each screening for a week.
Garland extended her appearance for two more weeks, partnered with Rooney for a second week and with Oz co-stars Ray Bolger and Bert Lahr for the third and final week.
The film opened nationwide on August 25, It was repeated on December 13, , and gained an even larger television audience, with a Nielsen rating of It became an annual television tradition.
The film was released multiple times to the home-video commercial market on a limited scale on Super 8 film 8 mm format during the s.
These releases include an edited English version roughly 10 minutes, and roughly 20 minutes , as well as edited Spanish versions.
In the s, a full commercial release was made on Super 8 on multiple reels. The film's first LaserDisc release was in In , there were two releases for the 50th anniversary, one from Turner and one from The Criterion Collection , with a commentary track.
Laserdiscs came out in and , and the final LaserDisc was released on September 11, It contained no special features or supplements. On October 19, , Oz was re-released by Warner Bros to celebrate the picture's 60th anniversary, with its soundtrack presented in a new 5.
The DVD also contained a behind-the-scenes documentary, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: The Making of a Movie Classic , produced in and hosted by Angela Lansbury , which was originally shown on television immediately following the telecast of the film.
It had been featured in the "Ultimate Oz" LaserDisc release. Outtakes, the deleted "Jitterbug" musical number, clips of pre Oz adaptations, trailers, newsreels, and a portrait gallery were also included, as well as two radio programs of the era publicizing the film.
In , two DVD editions were released, both featuring a newly restored version of the film with an audio commentary and an isolated music and effects track.
One of the two DVD releases was a "Two-Disc Special Edition", featuring production documentaries, trailers, various outtakes, newsreels, radio shows and still galleries.
The other set, a "Three-Disc Collector's Edition", included these features, as well as the digitally restored 80th-anniversary edition of the feature-length silent film version of The Wizard of Oz , other silent Oz adaptations and a animated short version.
For this edition, Warner Bros. The restoration job was given to Prime Focus World. On December 1, ,  three Blu-ray discs of the Ultimate Collector's Edition were repackaged as a less expensive "Emerald Edition".
A single-disc Blu-ray, containing the restored movie and all the extra features of the two-disc Special Edition DVD, became available on March 16, Many special editions were released in celebration of the film's 75th anniversary in , including one exclusively by Best Buy a SteelBook of the 3D Blu-ray and another by Target stores that came with a keepsake lunch bag.
Although the re-issue used sepia tone, as in the original film, beginning with the re-issue, and continuing until the film's 50th anniversary VHS release in , the opening Kansas sequences were shown in black and white instead of the sepia tone as originally printed.
This includes television showings. For the film's upcoming 60th anniversary, Warner Bros. In , the film had a very limited re-release in U.
On September 23, , the film was re-released in select theaters for a one-night-only event in honor of its 70th anniversary and as a promotion for various new disc releases later in the month.
An encore of this event took place in theaters on November 17, An IMAX 3D theatrical re-release played at theaters in North America for one week only beginning September 20, , as part of the film's 75th anniversary.
It was the first picture to play at the new theater and served as the grand opening of Hollywood's first 3D IMAX screen.
It was also shown as a special presentation at the Toronto International Film Festival. According to MPAA rules, a film that has been altered in any way from its original version must be submitted for re-classification, and the 3-D conversion fell within that guideline.
Surprisingly, the 3D version received a PG rating for "Some scary moments", although no change was made to the film's original story content. The 2D version still retains its G rating.
The film was re-released by Fathom Events on January 27, 29, 30, and February 3 and 5, as part of its 80th anniversary. It also had a one-week theatrical engagement in Dolby Cinema on October 25, to commemorate the anniversary.
The Wizard of Oz received widespread acclaim upon its release. Writing for The New York Times , Frank Nugent considered the film a "delightful piece of wonder-working which had the youngsters' eyes shining and brought a quietly amused gleam to the wiser ones of the oldsters.
Not since Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs has anything quite so fantastic succeeded half so well.
Nor can they, without a few betraying jolts and split-screen overlappings, bring down from the sky the great soap bubble in which Glinda rides and roll it smoothly into place.
According to Nugent, "Judy Garland's Dorothy is a pert and fresh-faced miss with the wonder-lit eyes of a believer in fairy tales, but the Baum fantasy is at its best when the Scarecrow, the Tin Man, and the Lion are on the move.
Writing in Variety , John C. Flinn predicted that the film was "likely to perform some record-breaking feats of box-office magic," noting, "Some of the scenic passages are so beautiful in design and composition as to stir audiences by their sheer unfoldment.
Harrison's Reports wrote, "Even though some persons are not interested in pictures of this type, it is possible that they will be eager to see this picture just for its technical treatment.
The performances are good, and the incidental music is of considerable aid. Pictures of this caliber bring credit to the industry. Leo the Lion is privileged to herald this one with his deepest roar—the one that comes from way down—for seldom if indeed ever has the screen been so successful in its approach to fantasy and extravaganza through flesh-and-blood Not all reviews were positive.
Some moviegoers felt that the year-old Garland was slightly too old to play the little girl who Baum intended his Dorothy to be. Russell Maloney of The New Yorker wrote that the film displayed "no trace of imagination, good taste, or ingenuity" and declared it "a stinkeroo,"  while Otis Ferguson of The New Republic wrote: "It has dwarfs, music, Technicolor, freak characters, and Judy Garland.
It can't be expected to have a sense of humor, as well — and as for the light touch of fantasy, it weighs like a pound of fruitcake soaking wet.
Roger Ebert chose it as one of his Great Films, writing that " The Wizard of Oz has a wonderful surface of comedy and music, special effects and excitement, but we still watch it six decades later because its underlying story penetrates straight to the deepest insecurities of childhood, stirs them and then reassures them.
In his critique of the film for the British Film Institute, author Salman Rushdie acknowledged its affect on him, noting " The Wizard of Oz was my very first literary influence".
In a retrospective article about the film, San Francisco Chronicle film critic and author Mick LaSalle declared that the.
The site's critical consensus reads, "An absolute masterpiece whose groundbreaking visuals and deft storytelling are still every bit as resonant, The Wizard of Oz is a must-see film for young and old.
However, for all the risks and cost that MGM undertook to produce the film, it was certainly more successful than anyone thought it would be.
The film had been enormously successful as a book, and it had also been a major stage hit, but previous attempts to bring it to the screen had been dismal failures.
Among the many dramatic differences between the film and the novel, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , are the era , the character of Dorothy Gale , who is not given an age in the novel, but depicted as much younger than Judy Garland in the illustrations, and the magic slippers, which are silver.
We are not told the Tin Woodman's rather gruesome backstory in the film. He started off a human being and kept lopping off bits of himself by accident.
Baum's Oz is divided into regions where people dress in the same color. Munchkins, for example, all wear blue. Obviously this did not lend itself to the brilliant palette that was the hallmark of Technicolor films at the time.
Dorothy's adventures in the book last much longer and take her and her friends to more places in Oz. In the end, her friends are invited to rule different areas of Oz.
In some cases—including the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, the Munchkins in style if not color , Dorothy's long pigtails and the unusual Oz noses—the film's designers were clearly inspired by the book's illustrations by William Wallace Denslow.
In others, including the costumes for the witches, good and bad, they created their own visions of Oz. An official sequel, the animated Journey Back to Oz starring Liza Minnelli , Garland's daughter, was produced to commemorate the original film's 35th anniversary.
Marvel planned a series of sequels based on the subsequent novels. The first, The Marvelous Land of Oz , was published later that year.
The next, The Marvelous Ozma of Oz was expected to be released the following year but never came to be. With a darker story, it fared poorly with critics unfamiliar with the Oz books and was not successful at the box office, although it has since become a popular cult film , with many considering it a more loyal and faithful adaptation of what L.
Frank Baum envisioned. It was a commercial success but received a mixed reception from critics. In , independent film company Clarius Entertainment released a big-budget animated musical film, Legends of Oz: Dorothy's Return ,  which follows Dorothy's second trip to Oz.
The film fared poorly at the box office and was received negatively by critics, largely for its plot and unmemorable musical numbers. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is America's greatest and best-loved home grown fairytale.
The first totally American fantasy for children, it is one of the most-read children's books In , Aljean Harmetz wrote The Making of The Wizard of Oz , a detailed description of the creation of the film based on interviews and research; it was updated in Because of their iconic stature,  the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland in the film are now among the most treasured and valuable film memorabilia in movie history.
Adrian , MGM's chief costume designer, was responsible for the final design. There are five known pairs of the ruby slippers in existence.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Frank Baum. Theatrical release poster. Harold Arlen Herbert Stothart. Release date. Running time.
Main article: Musical selections in The Wizard of Oz. Main article: The Wizard of Oz on television.
Main article: Adaptations of The Wizard of Oz. Main article: Ruby slippers. American Film Institute. Retrieved March 9, British Board of Film Classification.
Retrieved August 25, Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 25, Retrieved August 9, New York: Warner Books. August 18, Retrieved August 15, Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 24, Library of Congress. December 15, Retrieved April 16, Washington, D. September 19, Retrieved April 22, Archived from the original on August 5, Retrieved September 7, British Film Institute.
May 6, The Independent. Retrieved October 8, Co-produced by John Fricke and Aljean Harmetz. The Making of The Wizard of Oz. See the Chapter "Special Effects.
The Witness. Archived from the original on September 7, Schwartz posited that Rockefeller inspired one of the Wizard's numerous faces. In one scene in the novel, the Wizard is seen as a "tyrannical, hairless head".
When Rockefeller was 54 years old, the medical condition alopecia caused him to lose every strand of hair on his head, making people fearful of speaking to him.
In the early s, Baum's play Matches was being performed when a "flicker from a kerosene lantern sparked the rafters", causing the Baum opera house to be consumed by flames.
Scholar Evan I. Schwartz suggested that this might have inspired the Scarecrow's severest terror: "There is only one thing in the world I am afraid of.
A lighted match. In , Baum lived in Aberdeen, Dakota Territory , which was experiencing a drought, and he wrote a witty story in his "Our Landlady" column in Aberdeen's The Saturday Pioneer  about a farmer who gave green goggles to his horses, causing them to believe that the wood chips that they were eating were pieces of grass.
Similarly, the Wizard made the people in the Emerald City wear green goggles so that they would believe that their city was built from emeralds.
During Baum's short stay in Aberdeen, the dissemination of myths about the plentiful West continued. However, the West, instead of being a wonderland, turned into a wasteland because of a drought and a depression.
In , Baum moved his family from South Dakota to Chicago. At that time, Chicago was getting ready for the World's Columbian Exposition in After discovering that the myths about the West's incalculable riches were baseless, Baum created "an extension of the American frontier in Oz".
In many respects, Baum's creation is similar to the actual frontier save for the fact that the West was still undeveloped at the time.
The Munchkins Dorothy encounters at the beginning of the novel represent farmers, as do the Winkies she later meets.
Baum's wife frequently visited her niece, Dorothy Louise Gage. The infant became gravely sick and died on November 11, , from "congestion of the brain" at exactly five months.
When the baby, whom Maud adored as the daughter she never had, died, she was devastated and needed to consume medicine. Bossed around by his wife Matilda , Henry rarely dissented with her.
He flourished in business, though, and his neighbors looked up to him. Likewise, Uncle Henry was a "passive but hard-working man" who "looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke".
The stories of barbarous acts against accused witches scared Baum. Two key events in the novel involve wicked witches who both meet their death through metaphorical means.
Baum held different jobs, moved a lot, and was exposed to many people, so the inspiration for the story could have been taken from many different aspects of his life.
Baum, a former salesman of china, wrote in chapter 20 about china that had sprung to life. The original illustrator of the novel, W. Denslow , could also have influenced the story and the way it has been interpreted.
Baum and Denslow had a close working relationship and worked together to create the presentation of the story through the images and the text.
Color is an important element of the story and is present throughout the images, with each chapter having a different color representation.
Denslow also added characteristics to his drawings that Baum never described. For example, Denslow drew a house and the gates of the Emerald City with faces on them.
In the later Oz books, John R. Neill , who illustrated all of the sequels, continued to include these faces on gates. One of the earliest illustrators not to include a funnel hat was Russell H.
Schulz in the Whitman Publishing edition--Schulz depicted him wearing a pot on his head. Libico Maraja 's illustrations, which first appeared in a Italian edition and have also appeared in English-language and other editions, are well known for depicting him bareheaded.
Baum did not offer any conclusive proof that he intended his novel to be a political allegory, and for 60 years after the book's publication "virtually nobody" had such an interpretation.
Then, in a American Quarterly article entitled "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism",  the American teacher Henry Littlefield posited that the book contained an allegory of the late 19th-century bimetallism debate regarding monetary policy.
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has become an established part of multiple cultures, spreading from its early young American readership to becoming known throughout the world.
It has been translated or adapted into well over fifty languages, at times being modified in local variations. For instance, in some abridged Indian editions, the Tin Woodman was replaced with a horse.
The film adaptation has become a classic of popular culture, shown annually on American television from to and then several times a year every year beginning in There were several Hebrew translations published in Israel.
Thus, for Hebrew readers, this translators' choice added a layer of Biblical connotations absent from the English original. The New York Times , September 8, .
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz received positive critical reviews upon release. In a September review, The New York Times praised the novel, writing that it would appeal to child readers and to younger children who could not read yet.
The review also praised the illustrations for being a pleasant complement to the text. During the first 50 years after The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ' s publication in , it received little critical analysis from scholars of children's literature.
According to Ruth Berman of Science Fiction Studies , the lists of suggested reading published for juvenile readers never contained Baum's work.
The lack of interest stemmed from the scholars' misgivings about fantasy, as well as to their belief that lengthy series had little literary merit.
It has frequently come under fire over the years. In , the director of Detroit's libraries banned The Wonderful Wizard of Oz for having "no value" for children of his day, for supporting "negativism", and for bringing children's minds to a "cowardly level".
Professor Russel B. Nye of Michigan State University countered that "if the message of the Oz books—love, kindness, and unselfishness make the world a better place—seems of no value today", then maybe the time is ripe for "reassess[ing] a good many other things besides the Detroit library's approved list of children's books".
In , seven Fundamentalist Christian families in Tennessee opposed the novel's inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit.
The judge ruled that when the novel was being discussed in class, the parents were allowed to have their children leave the classroom. Leonard Everett Fisher of The Horn Book Magazine wrote in that Oz has "a timeless message from a less complex era, and it continues to resonate".
The challenge of valuing oneself during impending adversity has not, Fisher noted, lessened during the prior years.
In a review, Bill Delaney of Salem Press praised Baum for giving children the opportunity to discover magic in the mundane things in their everyday lives.
He further commended Baum for teaching "millions of children to love reading during their crucial formative years". The Library of Congress has declared The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to be "America's greatest and best-loved homegrown fairytale", also naming it the first American fantasy for children and one of the most-read children's books.
After George M. The word "New" was quickly dropped in subsequent printings, leaving the now-familiar shortened title, "The Wizard of Oz," and some minor textual changes were added, such as to "yellow daises," and changing a chapter title from "The Rescue" to "How the Four Were Reunited.
When Baum filed for bankruptcy after his critically and popularly successful film and stage production The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays failed to make back its production costs, Baum lost the rights to all of the books published by what was now called Bobbs-Merrill, and they were licensed to the M.
Copelman had illustrated a new edition of The Magical Monarch of Mo two years earlier. It was not until the book entered the public domain in that new editions, either with the original color plates, or new illustrations, proliferated.
Notable more recent editions are the Pennyroyal edition illustrated by Barry Moser , which was reprinted by the University of California Press , and the The Annotated Wizard of Oz edited by Michael Patrick Hearn heavily revised from a edition that was printed in a wide format that allowed for it to be a facsimile of he original edition with notes and additional illustrations at the sides , which was published by W.
Norton and included all the original color illustrations, as well as supplemental artwork by Denslow. Baum wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz without any thought of a sequel.
After reading the novel, thousands of children wrote letters to him, requesting that he craft another story about Oz. In , he wrote and published the first sequel, The Marvelous Land of Oz , explaining that he grudgingly wrote the sequel to address the popular demand.
Baum also wrote sequels in , , and In his The Emerald City of Oz , he wrote that he could not continue writing sequels because Ozland had lost contact with the rest of the world.
The children refused to accept this story, so Baum, in and every year thereafter until his death in May , wrote an Oz book, ultimately writing 13 sequels and half a dozen Oz short stories.
He wrote, "To please a child is a sweet and a lovely thing that warms one's heart and brings its own reward. Until this version, the book had inspired a number of now less well known stage and screen adaptations, including a profitable Broadway musical and three silent films.
The film was considered innovative because of its songs, special effects , and revolutionary use of the new Technicolor.
The story has been translated into other languages at least once without permission, resulting in Alexander Volkov 's The Wizard of the Emerald City novel and its sequels, which were translated into English by Sergei Sukhinov and adapted into comics several times.
Following the lapse of the original copyright, the characters have been adapted and reused in spin-offs, unofficial sequels, and reinterpretations, some of which have been controversial in their treatment of Baum's characters.
In , an Esperanto translation of the novel was used by a team of scientists to demonstrate a new method for encoding text in DNA which remains readable after repeated copying .
Neill, W. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Frank Baum. For other uses, see The Wonderful Wizard of Oz disambiguation. This last story of The Wizard is ingeniously woven out of commonplace material.
It is, of course, an extravaganza, but will surely be found to appeal strongly to child readers as well as to the younger children, to whom it will be read by mothers or those having charge of the entertaining of children.
There seems to be an inborn love of stories in child minds, and one of the most familiar and pleading requests of children is to be told another story.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: List of Oz books. Main article: Adaptations of The Wizard of Oz.
Novels portal. Frank Baum with Pictures by W. Chicago: Geo. Hill Co. Retrieved February 6, — via the Internet Archive.
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New York: Chelsea House Publishers. Carpenter, Angelica Shirley; Shirley, Jean Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz.
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