Fotbal

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Fotbal Německo - německá fotbalová liga, výsledky, tabulky, kalendář a rozlosování německé fotbalové Bundesligy. Články, videa, sestřihy. Canalul oficial al meciurilor din Liga 1, Liga 2, Cupa Romaniei - Fotbal Romania. Proprietar eAD. Atentie: 1. Toate clipurile de pe youtube legate de Liga 1. wermlandsalpacka.se | Oficiální web Fotbalové asociace České republiky. Syn bývalého reprezentanta, trenéra a funkcionáře Ivana Haška začínal s fotbalem v Tempu, ale od svých 11 let byl v Bohemians. Ligovou premiéru měl v. Fotbal · První liga · Poháry · Zahraničí · Domácí soutěže · Reprezentace · EURO Pondělí srpna Pavlína. Miloš Brezinský. narozen: 2. 4.

Fotbal

Übersetzung im Kontext von „fotbal“ in Rumänisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context​: echipa de fotbal, fotbal și, un meci de fotbal, meciul de fotbal, joci fotbal. Fotbal Německo - německá fotbalová liga, výsledky, tabulky, kalendář a rozlosování německé fotbalové Bundesligy. Články, videa, sestřihy. Fotbal Třinec ist ein tschechischer Fußballverein aus Třinec. Unter der Bezeichnung TJ TŽ Třinec war der Verein insgesamt sechs Jahre erstklassig, nämlich. Worttrennung: fot·bal, kein Plural. Aussprache: IPA: [ˈfotbal]: Hörbeispiele: —. Bedeutungen: [1] Sport: Fußball. Oberbegriffe: [1] sport. Beispiele: [1] „Fotbalul. Fotbal Třinec ist ein tschechischer Fußballverein aus Třinec. Unter der Bezeichnung TJ TŽ Třinec war der Verein insgesamt sechs Jahre erstklassig, nämlich. Fotbal Fulnek ist ein tschechischer Fußballverein aus dem nordmährischen Fulnek. Der Klub stieg seit Jahr für Jahr auf und spielte von 20in. Übersetzung im Kontext von „fotbal“ in Rumänisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context​: echipa de fotbal, fotbal și, un meci de fotbal, meciul de fotbal, joci fotbal. Fotbal =). Gefällt Mal. Nejlepší fotbalová stránka ve střední Evropě:). Hertha - Düsseldorf. Lipsko Mönchengladbach vs. Dortmund Mönchengladbach vs. Leverkusen Lipsko Leverkusen. Online Casino Apps Iphone Wolfsburg Mönchengladbach. Bayern - Hoffenheim. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have Sky Tagesticket of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders. Ostrava Slavia Ostrava. Liberec Ml. Olomouc Pardubice Olomouc. These games appear to have resembled rugby football.

Opava Bohemians Opava. Liberec Sparta vs. Liberec Sparta Liberec. Jablonec Teplice vs. Jablonec Teplice Jablonec. Olomouc Slavia vs. Olomouc Slavia Olomouc.

Sparta Ostrava vs. Sparta Ostrava Sparta. Bohemians Liberec vs. Bohemians Liberec Bohemians Brno Ml. Boleslav Brno. Boleslav Sparta vs. Boleslav Sparta Ml.

Liberec Brno vs. Liberec Brno Liberec. Opava Olomouc vs. Opava Olomouc Opava. Jablonec Slavia vs. Jablonec Slavia Jablonec. Brno Opava vs.

Brno Opava Brno. Olomouc Ml. Boleslav Olomouc. Bohemians Sparta vs. Bohemians Sparta Bohemians Pardubice Teplice vs.

Pardubice Teplice Pardubice. Sparta Olomouc vs. Sparta Olomouc Sparta. Brno Bohemians vs. Brno Bohemians Brno. Jablonec Ostrava vs.

Jablonec Ostrava Jablonec. Pardubice Slavia vs. Pardubice Slavia Pardubice. Olomouc Bohemians vs. Olomouc Bohemians Olomouc. Slavia Teplice vs.

Slavia Teplice Slavia. Ostrava Pardubice vs. Ostrava Pardubice Ostrava. Boleslav Jablonec vs. Boleslav Jablonec Ml.

Brno Olomouc vs. Brno Olomouc Brno. Jablonec Opava vs. Jablonec Opava Jablonec. Teplice Ostrava vs. Teplice Ostrava Teplice.

Pardubice Liberec vs. Pardubice Liberec Pardubice. Ostrava Slavia vs. Ostrava Slavia Ostrava. Opava Teplice vs. Opava Teplice Opava.

Sparta Jablonec vs. Sparta Jablonec Sparta. Jablonec Brno vs. Jablonec Brno Jablonec. Teplice Liberec vs. Teplice Liberec Teplice. Pardubice Opava vs.

Pardubice Opava Pardubice. Slavia Ml. Boleslav Slavia. Opava Slavia vs. Opava Slavia Opava. Liberec Jablonec vs. Liberec Jablonec Liberec.

Boleslav Pardubice vs. Boleslav Pardubice Ml. Bohemians Teplice vs. Bohemians Teplice Bohemians Ostrava Liberec vs.

Ostrava Liberec Ostrava. Teplice Sparta vs. Teplice Sparta Teplice. Slavia Brno vs. Slavia Brno Slavia.

Jablonec Bohemians vs. Jablonec Bohemians Jablonec. Pardubice Olomouc vs. Pardubice Olomouc Pardubice.

Boleslav Teplice vs. Boleslav Teplice Ml. Bohemians Pardubice vs. Champaign : Human Kinetics. London: Routledge. It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early s, and that number is increasing.

Embassy of the United States in London. BBC Sport. The Times. Football Association FA. Arhivat din original la 7 aprilie Arhivat din originalul de la 1 septembrie Arhivat din original la 22 aprilie Football League.

Arhivat din original la 8 iunie Arhivat din original la 13 septembrie Arhivat din original la 11 octombrie Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.

During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. In , J. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.

In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.

The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members.

Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham.

In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.

However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.

If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F.

Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. He said: "hacking is the true football".

However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".

In Britain , by , there were 49 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game. However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

Rugby football split into Rugby union , Rugby league , American football , and Canadian football. Tom Wills played Rugby football in England before funding Australian rules football.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on 9 November , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A.

Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On 6 November , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.

It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On 23 November , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby were replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on 9 October , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.

In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.

By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above.

The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping.

There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs : a team was allowed to retain possession of the ball for four tackles rugby union retains the original rule that a player who is tackled and brought to the ground must release the ball immediately.

The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.

In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region which is Association football in most countries.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. The best Association football and American football players are among the highest paid athletes in the world.

These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper, though outfield players can "throw-in" the ball when it goes out of play , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball by all players is allowed.

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'.

These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands during play is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked above the goalposts.

These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public independent schools:. Note: although similar to football and volleyball in some aspects, Sepak takraw has ancient origins and cannot be considered a hybrid game.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the overall concept of games called football. For the balls themselves, see Football ball.

For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation. Group of related team sports. Several codes of football.

Top to bottom, left to right: association , gridiron , Australian rules , rugby union , rugby league and Gaelic. The action of kicking in top to bottom, left to right association, gridiron, Australian and rugby football.

Main article: Football word. See also: Episkyros and Cuju. Further information: Medieval football. Main article: Calcio Fiorentino. Main article: Attempts to ban football games.

Main article: English public school football games. Main article: Oldest football clubs. Sheffield F. Main article: Oldest football competitions.

Main article: Football ball. Main article: Passing association football. Main article: Cambridge rules. Main article: Sheffield rules.

Main article: Australian rules football. See also: Origins of Australian rules football. Main article: The Football Association. The first football international, Scotland versus England.

Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. Main articles: Rugby football and History of rugby union.

Main article: History of Gaelic football. Further information: History of rugby league. Further information: Football word.

Main article: Variants of association football. See also: Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.

See also: Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Football portal. Journal of Sports Sciences.

Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 15 June Bangkok Post.

Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 29 April Rugby Football History. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 11 January The Sports Historian.

The International Journal of the History of Sport. Sports Geography. Science and Football Second ed. Abingdon: Routledge. The Football Association.

Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 27 September Etymology Online. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 1 November Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity.

Archived PDF from the original on 6 July Retrieved 6 July Japanese sports: a history. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original on 1 July Violence in Early Modern Europe — Cambridge University Press.

Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France. Sports in the Western World.

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Around the leagues. All the latest from the Premier League. European football. African football. Scottish Premiership. During the nineteenth century, several codifications of the rules of football were made at the University of Cambridge , in order to enable students from different public schools to play each other.

The Cambridge Rules of influenced the decision of Football Association to ban Rugby-style carrying of the ball in its own first set of laws.

By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football.

Sheffield Football Club , founded in in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.

The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule.

The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football. These included free kicks , corner kicks , handball, throw-ins and the crossbar.

At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century.

The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football can be traced back to in Melbourne , the capital city of Victoria.

Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules, [] the first of which was played on 31 July Following these matches, organised football in Melbourne rapidly increased in popularity.

Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club the oldest surviving Australian football club on 14 May Club members Wills, William Hammersley , J.

Thompson and Thomas H. Smith met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs. The committee debated rules used in English public school games; Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he learnt during his schooling.

The first rules share similarities with these games, and were shaped to suit to Australian conditions. Harrison , a seminal figure in Australian football, recalled that his cousin Wills wanted "a game of our own".

The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. The rules were updated several times during the s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs.

A significant redraft in by H. Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football Club 's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes.

It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking.

The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.

During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games.

In , J. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.

In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.

The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members.

Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham.

In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.

However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.

If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.

He said: "hacking is the true football". However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".

In Britain , by , there were 49 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game. However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

Rugby football split into Rugby union , Rugby league , American football , and Canadian football. Tom Wills played Rugby football in England before funding Australian rules football.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on 9 November , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A.

Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On 6 November , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.

It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On 23 November , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby were replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on 9 October , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game. Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.

In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.

By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above.

The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping.

There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs : a team was allowed to retain possession of the ball for four tackles rugby union retains the original rule that a player who is tackled and brought to the ground must release the ball immediately.

The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule. The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.

In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region which is Association football in most countries.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. The best Association football and American football players are among the highest paid athletes in the world.

These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper, though outfield players can "throw-in" the ball when it goes out of play , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball by all players is allowed.

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'. These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands during play is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked above the goalposts. These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public independent schools:. Note: although similar to football and volleyball in some aspects, Sepak takraw has ancient origins and cannot be considered a hybrid game.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the overall concept of games called football.

For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation.

Group of related team sports. Several codes of football. Top to bottom, left to right: association , gridiron , Australian rules , rugby union , rugby league and Gaelic.

The action of kicking in top to bottom, left to right association, gridiron, Australian and rugby football. Main article: Football word.

See also: Episkyros and Cuju. Further information: Medieval football. Main article: Calcio Fiorentino. Main article: Attempts to ban football games.

Main article: English public school football games. Main article: Oldest football clubs. Sheffield F. Main article: Oldest football competitions.

Main article: Football ball. Main article: Passing association football. Main article: Cambridge rules. Main article: Sheffield rules.

Main article: Australian rules football. See also: Origins of Australian rules football. Main article: The Football Association.

The first football international, Scotland versus England. Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football.

Main articles: Rugby football and History of rugby union. Main article: History of Gaelic football. Further information: History of rugby league.

Further information: Football word. Main article: Variants of association football. See also: Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.

See also: Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Football portal. Journal of Sports Sciences. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 15 June Bangkok Post.

Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 29 April Rugby Football History. Archived from the original on 23 December

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